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Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2009 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 517, no 24, 6652-6658 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon nitride (CNx) and amorphous carbon (a-C) thin films are deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering onto silicon (001) wafers under controlled conditions to achieve amorphous, graphitic and fullerene-like microstructures. As-deposited films are analyzed by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the UV–VIS–NIR and IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of the material. Additional characterization is performed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Between eight and eleven resonances are observed and modeled in the ellipsometrically determined optical spectra of the films. The largest or the second largest resonance for all films is a feature associated with C–N or C–C modes. This feature is generally associated with sp3 C–N or sp3 C–C bonds, which for the nitrogen-containing films instead should be identified as a three-fold or two-fold sp2 hybridization of N, either substituted in a graphite site or in a pyridine-like configuration, respectively. The π→πlow asterisk electronic transition associated with sp2 C bonds in carbon films and with sp2 N bonds (as N bonded in pyridine-like manner) in CNx films is also present, but not as strong. Another feature present in all CNx films is a resonance associated with nitrile often observed in carbon nitrides. Additional resonances are identified and discussed and moreover, several new, unidentified resonances are observed in the ellipsometric spectra.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier , 2009. Vol. 517, no 24, 6652-6658 p.
Keyword [en]
Carbon nitride; Amorphous carbon; Spectroscopic ellipsometry; Spectral decomposition; Fullerene-like; Structural properties; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Transmission electron microscopy
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19705DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-19705DiVA: diva2:227662
Note
Original Publication: Torun Berlind, Andrej Furland, Zs. Czigany, Jörg Neidhardt, Lars Hultman and Hans Arwin, Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of amorphous carbon and amorphous,graphitic and fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films, 2009, Thin Solid Films, (517), 24, 6652-6658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.04.065 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Carbon Nitride: Characterization and Protein Interactions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon Nitride: Characterization and Protein Interactions
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis concerns synthesis and characterization of carbon-based materials and theinvestigation of the possible use, of a selection of these materials, in biomedicalapplications. Protein adsorption and blood plasma tests were used for this purposeutilizing a surface sensitive technique called spectroscopic ellipsometry.

The materials were synthesized by physical vapor deposition and characterizedregarding microstructure, mechanical properties and optical properties. The ternaries BC-N and Si-C-N as well as carbon and carbon nitrides (CNx) of different microstructureshave been examined. In the B-C-N work, the intention was to investigate the possibilityto combine the two materials CNx and BN, interesting on their own regarding highhardness and extreme elasticity, to produce a material with even better properties.Theoretical calculations were performed to elucidate the different element substitutionsand defect arrangements in the basal planes promoting curvature in the fullerene-likemicrostructure. The Si-C-N ternary was investigated with the consideration of finding away to control the surface energy for certain applications. Amorphous carbon and threemicrostructures of CNx were analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry in the UV-VIS-NIRand IR spectral ranges in order to get further insight into the bonding structure of thematerial.

In the second part of this work focus was held on studies of macromolecularinteractions on silicon, carbon and CNx film surfaces using ellipsometry. One purposewas to find relevance (or not) for these materials in biological environments. Materials for bone replacement used today, e.g. stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys andtitanium alloys suffer from corrosion in body fluids, generation of wear particles inarticulating systems, infections and blood coagulation and cellular damage leading toimpaired functionality and ultimately to implant failure. Artificial heart valves made ofpyrolytic carbon are used today, with friction and wear problems. Thus, there is still aneed to improve biomaterials. The aim of the fourth paper was to investigate theinteraction between carbon-based materials and proteins. Therefore, amorphous carbon(a-C), amorphous (a), graphitic (g) and fullerene-like (FL) CNx thin films were exposedto human serum albumin and blood plasma and the amount of protein was measured insitu using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Surface located and accessible proteins after blood plasma incubations were eventually identified through incubations in antibody solutions.

Antibody exposures gave indications of surface response to blood coagulation,complement activation and clotting. The a-C and FL-CNx films might according to theresults have a future in soft tissue applications due to the low immuno-activity, whereasthe g-CNx film possibly might be a candidate for bone replacement applications.

"Layered" structures of fibrinogen, a fibrous but soft protein involved in manyprocesses in our body, were grown in situ and dynamically monitored by ellipsometry inorder to understand the adsorption process and molecule arrangement onto a siliconsurface.

In the last paper of this thesis, the effects of ion concentration and proteinconcentration on the refractive index of water-based solutions used in in situ ellipsometrymeasurements were demonstrated and spectral refractive index data for water solutionswith different ionic strengths and protein concentrations have been provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 67 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1263
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19710 (URN)978-91-7393-593-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-08-28, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-07-16 Created: 2009-07-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Berlind, TorunFurland, AndrejNeidhardt, JörgHultman, LarsArwin, Hans

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