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Swedish industrial and energy supply measures in a European system perspective
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A common electricity market in Europe will in all probability lead to a levelling out of the electricity price, which implies that Swedish consumers will face higher electricity prices with a European structure. This new market situation will force industry and energy suppliers to take new essential measures as actors in a deregulated European electricity market.

In this thesis it is shown how over 30 Swedish small and medium-sized industries can reduce their use of electricity by about 50%. When scaling up the result to include all Swedish industry, the measures will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions, and a situation where Sweden will have a net export of electricity.

Changing industrial energy use towards increased use of district heating will consequently affect the local energy suppliers. As a local energy supplier invests in CHP and co-operates on heat with an industry that has altered its energy use, the system cost will be halved. Considering higher European electricity prices, the benefits will be even higher with possibilities to reduce global emission with over 350%.

In Sweden where district heating is very well established, heat driven absorption technology is especially favourable since it will lead to cost effective electricity production and increased utilization time for a CHP plant. Vapour compression chillers have been compared with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. The results show that the higher the share of absorption technology is, in comparison to compression chillers, the lower the production cost will be for producing cooling.

This thesis illustrates measures for Swedish industry and energy suppliers in a fully deregulated European electricity market that will shift the energy systems in the direction of cost-effectiveness and resource effectiveness. The thesis also shows that the benefits of the measures will increase even more when accounting with electricity prices with a higher European structures. To methodically change the use of electricity would be an economical way to increase the competitiveness of Swedish plant in relation to other European plants.

Taking advantage of these particularly Swedish conditions will contribute to the creation of lean resource systems, and as a result help the whole EU region to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Altering industrial energy use towards less electricity and energy dependence will be a competitive alternative to new electricity production and help secure energy supply in the European Union.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2006. , 125 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1049
Keyword [en]
Deregulated European Electricity market, Industries, Energy suppliers, CO2 emissions, Electricity reduction, European electricity prices
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7832ISRN: 91-85643-70-XISBN: 91-8564-370-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7832DiVA: diva2:22767
Public defence
2006-10-24, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2012-01-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market: a case study of 11 industries in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market: a case study of 11 industries in Sweden
2005 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 33, no 11, 1445-1459 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario.

This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year.

Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based.

Keyword
Deregulated electricity market; Electricity reduction; Global emissions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14156 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2004.01.002 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
2. Generalized method for analysing industrial DSM towards sustainability in a deregulated European electricity market: method verification by applying it in 22 Swedish industries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized method for analysing industrial DSM towards sustainability in a deregulated European electricity market: method verification by applying it in 22 Swedish industries
2005 (English)In: Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Critical Infrastructures,  Grenoble, France, 25-27 October, 2005, 111-111 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14157 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
3. Socio-technical analyses of energy supply and use in three Swedish municipalities striving toward sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-technical analyses of energy supply and use in three Swedish municipalities striving toward sustainability
2005 (English)In: Proceeding of the 1st VHU Conference on Science for Sustainable Development, Västerås, Sweden, 14-16 April, 2005, 133–142- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14158 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27
4. Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating
2006 (English)In: the World Bioenergy 2006 Conference and exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping, Sweden, 30 may – 1 June, 2006, 198-203 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14159 (URN)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-05-18
5. Resource-effective systems achieved through changes in energy supply and industrial use: the Volvo Skövde case
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource-effective systems achieved through changes in energy supply and industrial use: the Volvo Skövde case
2006 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 83, no 8, 801-818 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The result presented in this paper shows that the Volvo plant can decrease its electricity use by 44% by making the use of electricity more efficient and converting from oil and electricity to district heating for hot tap-water, space heating and cooling. The increased demand of district heating makes investing in a new planned CHP and cooperation between the Volvo plant and the local energy utility production cost fall by 46% at current unit electricity price and by 64% when calculating with a European unit electricity price and investment in an optimised CHP system instead of the planned plant. The study furthermore shows that the global emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon-dioxide will be reduced by 350% a year if the two energy-supply measures are taken and the electricity unit prices are at a European level.

Keyword
CHP; Co-operation; Deregulated electricity market; District heating; Electricity price; Emission trading
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14160 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2005.09.005 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
6. European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 12, 1319-1337 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

Keyword
Absorption cooling, European electricity prices, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Global emissions
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14161 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.09.016 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13
7. Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions
2008 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, 2330-2350 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO2 emissions would be even smaller.

Keyword
Electricity consumption, Energy conservation, Power generation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14162 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.08.033 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13

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