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A System Perspective on District Heating and Waste Incineration
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy recovery by waste incineration has a double function as waste treatment method and supplier of electricity and/or heat, thereby linking the systems of energy and waste management. Both systems are undergoing great changes, mainly due to new regulations. Important regulations within waste management in Sweden are a ban on landfill of combustible waste and organic waste, and a tax on landfill of waste. New waste incineration facilities are being built in order to increase capacity to meet these demands.

The aim of this thesis is to investigate impacts on Swedish district heating systems of increased use of waste as a fuel in economic and environmental terms, the latter mainly by assessing emissions of carbon dioxide. Of importance is the influence of various policy instruments. To highlight the connection between the energy and waste management systems and how these influence each other is another goal, as well as the function of district heating systems as user of various waste heat supplies. An important assumption for this thesis is a deregulated European electricity market, where the marginal power production in the short term is coal condensing power and in the long term natural gas based power, that affects the conditions for combined heat and power in district heating systems. The method used is case studies of three Swedish municipalities that utilise waste in their district heating systems. In two papers, the scope is broadened from the energy utility perspective by comparing the energy efficiency of energy recovery and material recovery of various fractions, and the effect of including external costs for CO2 as well as SO2, NOx and particles. The ambition is that the results can be part of the decision making process for energy utilities and for policy makers in the energy sector and waste management.

It is economically advantageous to use waste as a fuel in the energy sector and regulations in the waste management sector and high taxes on fossil fuels contribute to profitability. Waste incineration plants are base suppliers of heat because they derive revenue from receiving the waste. Economic conditions for waste incineration are altered with the introduction of a tax on incinerated municipal waste. A conflict may arise between combined heat and power production in district heating systems and waste incineration, since the latter can remove the heat sink for other combined heat and power plants with higher efficiencies. Combined heat and power is the main measure to decrease carbon dioxide emissions in district heating systems on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity in coal condensing plants. It can be difficult to design policy instruments for waste incineration due to some conflicting goals for waste management and energy systems. Comparing the energy efficiency of material recovery and energy recovery is a way to assess the resource efficiency of waste treatment methods. From that perspective, if there is a district heating system which can utilise the heat, biodegradable waste and cardboard should be energy recovered and plastics and paper material recovered. To put costs on environmental effects, so called external costs, is a way to take these effects into regard in traditional economic calculations, but the method has drawbacks, e.g. the limited range of environmental effects included and uncertainties in the monetary valuation of environmental effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik , 2006.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1053
Keyword [en]
Energy recovery, District heating, Waste incineration, Waste management, Environmental, Material recovery
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7992ISBN: 91-85643-61-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-7992DiVA: diva2:22895
Public defence
2006-11-17, C3, Hus C, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2009-02-26
List of papers
1. Waste incineration in Swedish municipal energy systems: modelling the effects of various waste quantities in the city of Linköping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Waste incineration in Swedish municipal energy systems: modelling the effects of various waste quantities in the city of Linköping
2004 (English)In: Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems, Dubrovnik, Croatia; 2004, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14201 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2009-05-19
2. Modelling a district heating system: introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling a district heating system: introduction of waste incineration, policy instruments and co-operation with an industry
2004 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 32, no 16, 1807-1817 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The capacity for waste incineration in Swedish municipalities is increasing due to regulations aimed at decreasing landfill with waste. This has a large impact on the municipal energy systems, since waste is an important fuel for district heating production. The object of this study is a municipality, Skövde, which is planning to build a waste incineration plant to produce electricity and heat. The municipality is also planning to extend the district heating grid to include a large industrial heat consumer. The economic effect on the energy system of these measures is analysed as well as environmental effects in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. The consequences of two different policy instruments, green electricity certificates and a tax on waste incineration, are also studied. Economic optimisations show that the advantage of co-operation with industry is twofold: lower heat production costs and a considerable reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. It is economically feasible to invest in a waste incineration plant for heat production. An important measure to lower carbon dioxide emissions is to introduce combined heat and power production on the assumption that locally produced electricity replaces electricity produced by coal condensing power.

Keyword
Waste, Energy recovery, District heating, Policy instruments, Industrial co-operation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14202 (URN)10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00168-X (DOI)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04
3. Role of a district heating network as a user of waste heat supply from various sources: the case of Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of a district heating network as a user of waste heat supply from various sources: the case of Göteborg
2006 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 83, no 12, 1351-1367 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District-heating (DH) networks can utilise heat that would otherwise be of limited use. This study analyses a municipal DH system, which uses waste heat from industries and waste incineration as base suppliers of heat and is currently investing in a natural-gas fired combined heat-and-power (CHP) plant. An important assumption in this study is of the establishment of an integrated European electricity-market, which means higher electricity prices than are traditional in Sweden. The study shows that there is space in the DH system for all three energy carriers; heat from industries, waste incineration and CHP plants. The new CHP plant replaces mainly other heat sources, i.e., hot water boilers and heat pumps. The new CHP plant’s operating time is strongly dependent on the electricity price.

Keyword
District heating; Waste incineration; Cogeneration; Waste heat; Modelling; Policy instruments
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14203 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.02.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04
4. Modelling the impact of policy instruments on district heating operations: experiences from Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the impact of policy instruments on district heating operations: experiences from Sweden
2006 (English)In: 10th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling, Hanover, Germany, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Emission allowances aim at reducing carbon dioxide emissions in the European Union. Feed-in tariffs and green certificates increase renewable electricity generation in some countries. Undesired energy carriers, such as fossil fuels, can be taxed to decrease consumption. In Sweden, monetary policy instruments have been used for many years, which has influenced district-heating utilities’ operations and investments.

The energy system optimisation model MODEST may help elucidating the impact of policy instruments on choices of fuels and plants. The model can minimise operation and investment costs for satisfying district heating demand, considering revenues from electricity sales and waste reception. It has been used to analyse heat and electricity production for 50 local Swedish utilities. This paper shows how some plants, systems and policy instruments have been modelled and results from some case studies. It may help analysts who face policy instruments, which probably will have a growing influence on district heating operations.

Policy instruments should reflect external costs and induce behaviour that is beneficial from an overall viewpoint. Swedish fossil-fuel taxes hampered cogeneration during many years. Earlier, fuel input could be freely allocated to output energy forms and wood was often used for heat production and coal for electricity generation to minimise taxes. Now, lower taxes promote fossil cogeneration but green certificates make it more profitable to invest in renewable electricity generation.

Carbon dioxide emission allowances can reduce local emissions due to districtheating and electricity production significantly at current price levels but the impact depends on allowance price. With emission trading, investment in a natural-gas-fired cogeneration plant may be beneficial for some utilities due to high electricity prices in the European electricity market, partly caused by emission allowances.

District-heating demand can enable utilisation of resources that otherwise would be of no value. A landfill ban now increases waste incineration, which may reduce industrial waste heat utilisation and heat disposal from cogeneration plants and thereby decrease electricity production. A tax on incinerated waste may reduce the profitability of investing in waste incineration.

Keyword
Energy policy, taxes, green certificates, emission allowances, CHP
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14204 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2009-05-18Bibliographically approved
5. Comparison between material and energy recovery of municipal waste from an energy perspective: A study of two Swedish municipalities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison between material and energy recovery of municipal waste from an energy perspective: A study of two Swedish municipalities
2004 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 43, no 1, 51-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to compare material recovery to waste incineration with energy recovery from the criteria of energy efficiency. Material recovery saves virgin material and also energy since production processes using recovered material are less energy intensive than processes using virgin material, whereas energy recovery saves other fuels that differ among various energy systems. Optimisations are made for the district heating systems in two Swedish municipalities, showing that it is profitable for the energy utilities in the municipalities to invest in plants using waste as a fuel for electricity and heat production. The fuels replaced by the waste differ between the municipalities. For one it is mostly wood chips, and for the other, a lot of biomass is replaced, but the largest saving is in oil. Energy savings by material recycling of the waste are calculated. Non-combustible waste, such as metals and glass save energy in various extensions when material recycled, but give no heat contribution when incinerated. It is more complicated to compare material and energy recovery of combustible waste fractions, such as cardboard, paper, plastics and biodegradable waste since they can be recycled in both fashions. For these fractions it is important to consider the configuration of the energy system. The conclusions from the two municipalities are that even if there is a district heating system able to utilise the heat, from the energy-efficiency view point; paper and hard plastics should preferably be material recovered, whereas cardboard and biodegradable waste is more suited for energy recovery through waste incineration. These calculations are done with the assumption that biomass should be regarded as a limited resource and when saved eventually eliminates fossile fuel combustion in other facilities.

Keyword
Waste management, Material recovery, Waste incineration, Energy recovery, District heating, Energy savings
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14205 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.05.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04
6. Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internalising external costs of electricity and heat production in a municipal energy system
2007 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 35, no 10, 5242-5253 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both energy supply and waste treatment give rise to negative effects on the environment, so-called external effects. In this study, monetary values on external costs collected from the EU′s ExternE project are used to evaluate inclusion of these costs in comparison with an energy utility perspective including present policy instruments. The studied object is a municipal district heating system with a waste incineration plant as the base supplier of heat. The evaluation concerns fuels used for heat production and total electricity production, for scenarios with external costs included and for a scenario using the present policy instrument.

Impacts of assumptions on marginal power producers (coal or natural gas power plants) are investigated, since locally produced electricity is assumed to replace marginal power and thus is credited for the avoided burden. Varying levels of external costs for carbon dioxide emissions are analysed. The method used is an economic optimisation model, MODEST.

The conclusion is that present policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration, even when external costs are included. Waste is fully utilised in all scenarios. In cases where coal is the marginal power producer, more electricity is produced; when natural gas is the marginal power producer, less is produced. There are several uncertainties in the data for external costs, both methodological and ethical. In the ExternE data, not all environmental impacts are included. For waste incineration, ashes are not included, and another difficulty is how to treat the avoided burden of other waste treatment methods.

Keyword
External costs, Combined heat and power, Waste incineration
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14206 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.04.026 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04 Last updated: 2013-05-22
7. Energy recovery from waste incineration: linking the technical systems of energy and waste management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy recovery from waste incineration: linking the technical systems of energy and waste management
2006 (English)In: Conservation and Recycling of Resources: New Research, Nova Publishers , 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nova Publishers, 2006
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14207 (URN)
Available from: 2007-01-04 Created: 2007-01-04

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