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Having a New Pair of Glassess: Applying Systemic Accident Models on Road Safety
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The main purpose of the thesis is to discuss the accident models which underlie accident prevention in general and road safety in particular, and the consequences of relying on a particular model have for actual preventive work. The discussion centres on two main topics. The first topic is whether the underlying accident model, or paradigm, of traditional road safety should be exchanged for a more complex accident model, and if so, which model(s) are appropriate. From a discussion of current developments in modern road traffic, it is concluded that the traditional accident model of road safety needs replacing. An analysis of three general accident model types shows that the work of traditional road safety is based on a sequential accident model. Since research in industrial safety has shown that such model are unsuitable for complex systems, it needs to be replaced by a systemic model, which better handles the complex interactions and dependencies of modern road traffic.

The second topic of the thesis is whether the focus of road safety should shift from accident investigation to accident prediction. Since the goal of accident prevention is to prevent accidents in the future, its focus should theoretically be on how accidents will happen rather than on how they did happen. Despite this, road safety traditionally puts much more emphasis on accident investigation than prediction, compared to areas such as nuclear power plant safety and chemical industry safety. It is shown that this bias towards the past is driven by the underlying sequential accident model. It is also shown that switching to a systemic accident model would create a more balanced perspective including both investigations of the past and predictions of the future, which is seen as necessary to deal with the road safety problems of the future.

In the last chapter, more detailed effects of adopting a systemic perspective is discussed for four important areas of road safety, i.e. road system modelling, driver modelling, accident/incident investigations and road safety strategies. These descriptions contain condensed versions of work which has been done in the FICA and the AIDE projects, and which can be found in the attached papers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för datavetenskap , 2007.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1051
Keyword [en]
accident model, road safety, accident prevention, accident analysis
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8189ISBN: 91-85643-64-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8189DiVA: diva2:23032
Public defence
2007-02-07, Alan Turing, E, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26 Last updated: 2009-04-30
List of papers
1. Accident Models for Modern Road Traffic: Changing Times Creates New Demands
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accident Models for Modern Road Traffic: Changing Times Creates New Demands
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to develop accident models that can be applied to modern road traffic. Several criteria are proposed that a model suitable for the conditions of modern road traffic should fulfil. Four commonly applied general accident models are reviewed, and found to be inadequate in relation to the criteria. Also, the consequences of an underlying structural problem in all four model types, which is the result of regarding the human as a system component, are discussed. To remedy the discovered problems, it is argued that traffic safety should make use of the developments that have been made in the field of industrial safety. Several suggestions are proposed for how a new model could be developed, based on experiences from industrial safety.

Keyword
accident models, road traffic safety, accident prevention, accident causation, industrial safety
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14257 (URN)10.1109/ICSMC.2004.1398310 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26 Last updated: 2009-05-19
2. Close Calls on the Road: A Study of Drivers’ Near-misses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Close Calls on the Road: A Study of Drivers’ Near-misses
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Psychology, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Joining a longstanding tradition in the field of industrial accident prevention, traffic accident research has begun to extend the study of accidents and serious incidents to include also near-misses and unsafe conditions. As part of a Swedish project called FICA (FactorsInfluencing the Causation of Incidents and Accidents), a study has been conducted to investigate near-misses, with the aim of clarifying different types and frequencies, as well as possible causes at the blunt and sharp end. The near-miss study made use of an analysis method called Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method. The purpose of the method is to uncover the main socio-technical MTO factors involved in scenarios leading to traffic accidents. The study resulted in valuable understanding of near-misses in traffic and their aetiology, suggestions for improvements of the analysis method, and a basis for further,more extensive, near-miss studies.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14258 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26 Last updated: 2009-05-26
3. MTO Factors Contributing to Road Accidents at Intersections
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MTO Factors Contributing to Road Accidents at Intersections
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive System Engineering in Process Control, 2004, 166-173 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

At present, workin road traffic safety is expanding from injury prevention toinclude also accident prevention. For accident preventive measuresto be effective, knowledge is needed about common causal factorsthat contribute to the occurrence of accidents. This paper aimstowards identification of such common factors for a specific subsetof all road accidents, namely intersection accidents. The data usedfor the study consists of in-depth investigation material fromsixteen intersection accidents that have been investigated by amulti-disciplinary accident investigation team. Data analysis wasperformed using DREAM, a MTO based accident investigation method.The results indicate that cognitive bias, hidden information,inadequate design of traffic environment, and competing task arecommon contributing factors of intersection accidents. Also, thedistribution of factors for different collision path scenarios wasstudied, and several patterns in the distribution were discovered.These patterns were then compared to the results of another studywith a similar aim, but based on database statistics rather thatin-depth data. The conclusion of the comparison is that the DREAMmethod, in combination with in-depth accident data, provides adeeper and more detailed insight into how and why different factorscontribute to accidents, and these insights are well suited foraccident preventive work.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14259 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26 Last updated: 2009-05-19
4. A Model of Human-Machine Interaction for Risk Analysis in Road Traffic: A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model of Human-Machine Interaction for Risk Analysis in Road Traffic: A Cognitive Systems Engineering Approach
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer Human Interaction, 2006Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14260 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-26 Created: 2007-02-26

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