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Proislet Amyloid Polypeptide (proIAPP): Impaired Processing is an Important Factor in Early Amyloidogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Amyloid is defined as extracellular protein aggregates with a characteristic fibrillar ultra-structure, Congo red affinity and a unique x-ray diffraction pattern. At present, 25 different human amyloid fibril proteins have been identified, and amyloid aggregation is associated with pathological manifestations such as Alzheimer’s disease, spongiform encephalopathy and type 2 diabetes. Amyloid aggregation triggers apoptosis by incorporation of early oligomers in cellular membranes, causing influx of ions. Amyloid is the only visible pathological islet alteration in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is the major islet amyloid fibril component. IAPP is produced by beta-cells and co-localized with insulin in the secretory granules. Both peptides are synthesised as pro-molecules and undergo proteolytic cleavage by the prohormone convertase 1/3 and 2. Although IAPP is the main amyloid constituent, both proIAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates have been identified in islet amyloid.

The aim of this thesis was to study the role of impaired processing of human proIAPP in early islet amyloidogenesis. Five cell lines with individual processing properties were transfected with human proIAPP and expression, aggregation and viability were studied. Cells unable to process proIAPP into IAPP or to process proIAPP at the N-terminal processing site accumulated intracellular amyloid-like aggregates and underwent apoptosis. Further, proIAPP immunoreactivity was detected in intracellular amyloid-like aggregates in betacells from transgenic mice expressing human IAPP and in transplanted human beta-cells. ProIAPP was hypothesized to act as a nidus for further islet amyloid deposition, and to investigate this theory, amyloid-like fibrils produced from recombinant IAPP, proIAPP and insulin C-peptide/A-chain were injected in the tail vein of transgenic mice expressing the gene for human IAPP. Pancreata were recovered after 10 months and analysed for the presence of amyloid. Both IAPP and proIAPP fibrils but not des-31,32 proinsulin fibrils, caused an increase in affected islets and also an increase of the amyloid amount. This finding demonstrates a seeding capacity of proIAPP on IAPP fibrillogenesis. IAPP has been known for some time to trigger apoptosis in cultured cells, and a novel method for real time detection of apoptosis in beta-cells was developed. Aggregation of recombinant proIAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates were concluded to be inducers of apoptosis as potent as IAPP fibril formation.

From the results of this study, a scenario for initial islet amyloidogenesis is proposed. Initial amyloid formation occurs intracellularly as a result of alterations in beta-cell processing capacity. When the host cell undergoes apoptosis intracellular proIAPP amyloid becomes extracellular and can act as seed for further islet amyloid deposition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2006. , 74 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 967
Keyword [en]
Biosynthesis amyloid, Genetics amyloid, Metabolism amyloid, Islets of Langerhans, Proprotein convertases, Posttranslation protein processing
National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8243ISBN: 91-85643-59-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8243DiVA: diva2:23092
Public defence
2006-11-24, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-02-01 Created: 2007-02-01 Last updated: 2012-01-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Aberrant processing of human proislet amyloid polypeptide results in increased amyloid formation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aberrant processing of human proislet amyloid polypeptide results in increased amyloid formation
2005 (English)In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, Vol. 54, no 7, 2117-2125 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The amyloid present in the islets of Langerhans in type 2 diabetes is polymerized islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). The precursor protein proIAPP is posttranslationally modified, a process involving the removal of NH2- and COOH-terminal flanking peptides. This step is performed by the prohormone convertases PC2 and PC1/3. PC2 processes proIAPP preferably at the NH 2-terminal processing site, and PC1/3 processes proIAPP exclusively at the COOH-terminal site. Little is known regarding the exact circumstances leading to islet amyloid formation. In this study, we have examined the possible significance of aberrant processing of proIAPP on amyloid formation in several in vitro cellular systems. In our studies, human (h)-proIAPP was transfected into β-TC-6 cells expressing both prohormone convertases and in which proIAPP is processed into IAPP. Additionally, h-proIAPP was transfected into three different pituitary-derived cell lines with different prohormone convertase profiles: AtT-20 cells (deficient in PC2), GH3 cells (deficient in PC1/3), and GH4C1 cells (deficient in both convertases). We followed the processing of h-proIAPP with antibodies specific for the respective cleavage sites and stained the cells with Congo red to verify the accumulation of amyloid. Incomplete processing of h-proIAPP that occurs in AtT-20 and GH4C1 cells resulted in the formation of intracellular amyloid. No amyloid developed in β-TC-6 and GH3 cells lines with full processing of proIAPP. An intracellular increase in proIAPP and/or its metabolic products may thus promote intracellular amyloid formation, thereby causing cell death. When extracellularly exposed, this amyloid might act as template for continuing amyloid formation from processed IAPP released from the surrounding β-cells. © 2005 by the American Diabetes Association.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30444 (URN)10.2337/diabetes.54.7.2117 (DOI)16007 (Local ID)16007 (Archive number)16007 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-01-03
2. Intracellular amyloid-like deposits contain unprocessed pro-islet amyloid polypeptide (proIAPP) in beta cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the gene for human IAPP and transplanted human islets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intracellular amyloid-like deposits contain unprocessed pro-islet amyloid polypeptide (proIAPP) in beta cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the gene for human IAPP and transplanted human islets
2006 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 49, no 6, 1237-1246 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims/hypothesis: Islet amyloid is a frequent finding in the islets of Langerhans of individuals with type 2 diabetes. The main amyloid constituent is the beta cell-derived polypeptide hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In general, amyloid refers to an extracellular deposit of a congophilic material, but intracellular amyloid is seen in some beta cells of transgenic mice expressing the gene for human IAPP and in human islets transplanted into nude mice. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically characterise the intracellular amyloid. Methods: Antisera against the N- and C-terminal processing sites of proIAPP (which were therefore specific for proIAPP), the C-terminal flanking peptide and mature IAPP were used for immunoelectron microscopy. Results: Fibrillar aggregates were seen in the halo region of the secretory granules in some beta cells in human IAPP transgenic mice. These aggregates were labelled with proIAPP-specific antisera. Also, proIAPP reactivity was more widespread in the intracellular amyloid-like aggregates in beta cells of transgenic mice than in human islet transplants, in which the intracellular amyloid-like deposits were larger, but the proIAPP labelling was restricted to small spots within the amyloid deposits. Conclusions/ interpretation: We suggest that proIAPP forms the first amyloid fibrils and that this can occur already in the secretory granules of the beta cells. The proIAPP-derived fibrils can act as seed for further amyloid formation, now made up by IAPP. The observed difference between human islet transplants and human IAPP transgenic animals may reflect differences in stages of amyloid development. © Springer-Verlag 2006.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36937 (URN)10.1007/s00125-006-0206-7 (DOI)33090 (Local ID)33090 (Archive number)33090 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2012-01-03Bibliographically approved
3. There is a role for proIAPP in islet amyloid fibrillogenesis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>There is a role for proIAPP in islet amyloid fibrillogenesis
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2008 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) can aggregate into amyloid, a common pathological finding present extracellularly in the islets of Langerhans in individuals with type 2 diabetes. IAPP arises from posttranslational processing of the precursor proIAPP. Accumulation of proIAPP in the secretory granules can result in proIAPP-amyloid formation. We raise the following hypothesis; proIAPP can under not yet defined circumstances aggregate into amyloid-like fibrils intracellularly and at this location act as template and cross-seed amyloid formation of IAPP. We have produced recombinant peptides corresponding to proIAPP and IAPP. These peptides aggregate readily into fibrils with typical amyloid characteristics. Sonicated recproIAPP- and recIAPP- preformed fibrillar aggregates were injected intravenously to +/hIAPP/-mIAPP transgenic mice. Male mice from this strain develop islet amyloid in response to high fat diet. Control animals received an injection of preformed amyloid fibrils from the proinsulin processing intermediate (C-peptide/A-chain) or sodium chloride. All animals were fed a diet high in fat over a ten month period. The presence of islet amyloid was studied after Congo red staining. We found amyloid in 20 % of the islets in animals injected with preformed recIAPP fibrils and in 10 % of the islets in animals injected with preformed recproIAPP fibrils. Control animals developed amyloid in 1-2% of the islets. Our results support the hypothesis that proIAPP-fibrils can act as template and induce conformational changes in soluble IAPP that results in propagation of the amyloid fibrils. This is the first report on in vivo seeding of a localized amyloid form and we present data that support transport of amyloid between islets as a putative route for the spreading of islet amyloid. Our finding suggests that therapies, which use capping of fibril endings, might be useless.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73476 (URN)
Available from: 2012-01-04 Created: 2012-01-04 Last updated: 2012-01-04Bibliographically approved
4. Real-Time Monitoring of Apoptosis by Caspase-3-Like Protease Induced FRET Reduction Triggered by Amyloid Aggregation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Monitoring of Apoptosis by Caspase-3-Like Protease Induced FRET Reduction Triggered by Amyloid Aggregation
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2008 (English)In: Experimental Diabetes Research, ISSN 1687-5214, Vol. 2008, no 865850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amyloid formation is cytotoxic and can activate the caspase cascade. Here, we monitor caspase-3-like activity as reduction of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using the contstruct pFRET2-DEVD containing enhanced cyan fluorescent protin (EYFP) linked by the caspase-3 specific cleavage site residues DEVD. Beta-TC-6 cells were transfected, and the fluoorescence was measured at 440 nm excitation and 535 nm (EYFP) and 480 nm (ECFP) emission wavelength. Cells were incubated with recombinant pro lset Amyloid Polypeptide (rec prolAPP) or the processing metabolites of prolAPP; the N-terminal flanking peptide withIAPP (recN+IAPP); IAPP with the C-terminal flanking peptied (recIAPP+C) and lslet Amyloid Polypeptide (recIAPP). Peptides were added in solubilized from (50 mu M) or as performed amyloid-like fibrils, or as a combination of these. FRET was measured and incubation with a mixture of solubilized peptide and performed fibrils resulted in loss of FRET and apoptosis was determined to occurein cells incubated with recproIAPP (49%), recN+IAPP (46%), recIAPP (72%) and recIAPP+C (59%). These results show that proIAPP and the processing intermediates reside the same cell toxic capacity as IAPP, and they can all have a central role in the reduction of beta-cell number in type 2 diabetes.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19669 (URN)10.1155/2008/865850 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Johan F Paulsson, Sebastian Schultz, Martin Kohler, Ingo Leibiger, Per-Olof Berggren and Gunilla Westermark, Real-Time Monitoring of Apoptosis by Caspase-3-Like Protease Induced FRET Reduction Triggered by Amyloid Aggregation, 2008, EXPERIMENTAL DIABETES RESEARCH, (2008), 865850. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2008/865850 Copyright: Authors Available from: 2009-08-28 Created: 2009-07-10 Last updated: 2012-01-03Bibliographically approved

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