Proislet Amyloid Polypeptide (proIAPP): Impaired Processing is an Important Factor in Early Amyloidogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Amyloid is defined as extracellular protein aggregates with a characteristic fibrillar ultra-structure, Congo red affinity and a unique x-ray diffraction pattern. At present, 25 different human amyloid fibril proteins have been identified, and amyloid aggregation is associated with pathological manifestations such as Alzheimer’s disease, spongiform encephalopathy and type 2 diabetes. Amyloid aggregation triggers apoptosis by incorporation of early oligomers in cellular membranes, causing influx of ions. Amyloid is the only visible pathological islet alteration in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is the major islet amyloid fibril component. IAPP is produced by beta-cells and co-localized with insulin in the secretory granules. Both peptides are synthesised as pro-molecules and undergo proteolytic cleavage by the prohormone convertase 1/3 and 2. Although IAPP is the main amyloid constituent, both proIAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates have been identified in islet amyloid.
The aim of this thesis was to study the role of impaired processing of human proIAPP in early islet amyloidogenesis. Five cell lines with individual processing properties were transfected with human proIAPP and expression, aggregation and viability were studied. Cells unable to process proIAPP into IAPP or to process proIAPP at the N-terminal processing site accumulated intracellular amyloid-like aggregates and underwent apoptosis. Further, proIAPP immunoreactivity was detected in intracellular amyloid-like aggregates in betacells from transgenic mice expressing human IAPP and in transplanted human beta-cells. ProIAPP was hypothesized to act as a nidus for further islet amyloid deposition, and to investigate this theory, amyloid-like fibrils produced from recombinant IAPP, proIAPP and insulin C-peptide/A-chain were injected in the tail vein of transgenic mice expressing the gene for human IAPP. Pancreata were recovered after 10 months and analysed for the presence of amyloid. Both IAPP and proIAPP fibrils but not des-31,32 proinsulin fibrils, caused an increase in affected islets and also an increase of the amyloid amount. This finding demonstrates a seeding capacity of proIAPP on IAPP fibrillogenesis. IAPP has been known for some time to trigger apoptosis in cultured cells, and a novel method for real time detection of apoptosis in beta-cells was developed. Aggregation of recombinant proIAPP and proIAPP processing intermediates were concluded to be inducers of apoptosis as potent as IAPP fibril formation.
From the results of this study, a scenario for initial islet amyloidogenesis is proposed. Initial amyloid formation occurs intracellularly as a result of alterations in beta-cell processing capacity. When the host cell undergoes apoptosis intracellular proIAPP amyloid becomes extracellular and can act as seed for further islet amyloid deposition.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2006. , 74 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 967
Biosynthesis amyloid, Genetics amyloid, Metabolism amyloid, Islets of Langerhans, Proprotein convertases, Posttranslation protein processing
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8243ISBN: 91-85643-59-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8243DiVA: diva2:23092
2006-11-24, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Betsholtz, Christer, Professor
Westermark, Gunilla, Docent
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