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Interacting with command and control systems: Tools for operators and designers
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
2004 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Command and control is central in all distributed tactical operations such as rescue operations and military operations. It takes place in a complex system of humans and artefacts, striving to reach common goals. The command and control complexity springs from several sources, including dynamism, uncertainty, risk, time pressure, feedback delays and interdependencies. Stemming from this complexity, the thesis approaches two important and related problem areas in command and control research. On a general level, the thesis seeks to approach the problems facing the command and control operators and the problems facing the designers in the associated systems development process.

We investigate the specific problem of operators losing sight of the overall perspective when working with large maps in geographical information systems with limited screen area. To approach this problem, we propose high-precision input techniques that reduce the need for zooming and panning in touch-screen systems, and informative unit representations that make better use of the screen area available. The results from an experimental study show that the proposed input techniques are as fast and accurate as state-of-the-art techniques without the need to resort to zooming. Furthermore, results from a prototype design show that the proposed unit representation reduces on-screen clutter and makes use of off-screen units to better exploit the valuable screen area.

Developing command and control systems is a complex task with several pitfalls, including getting stuck in exhaustive analyses and overrated reliance on rational methods. In this thesis, we employ a design-oriented research framework that acknowledges creative and pragmatic ingredients to handle the pitfalls. Our approach adopts the method of reconstruction and exploration of mission histories from distributed tactical operations as a means for command and control analysis. To support explorative analysis of mission histories within our framework, we propose tools for communication analysis and tools for managing metadata such as reflections, questions, hypotheses and expert comments. By using these tools together with real data from live tactical operations, we show that they can manage large amounts of data, preserve contextual data, support navigation within data, make original data easily accessible, and strengthen the link between metadata and supporting raw data. Furthermore, we show that by using these tools, multiple analysts, experts, and researchers can exchange comments on both data and metadata in a collaborative and explorative investigation of a complex scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för datavetenskap , 2004. , 72 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971
Keyword [en]
Geographical information systems, Military operations, Command and control research, Command and control systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8425ISBN: 91-85295-90-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8425DiVA: diva2:23220
Presentation
2004-12-16, John von Neumann, Hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Note
Report code: LiU-Tek-Lic-2004:61.Available from: 2007-02-27 Created: 2007-02-27
List of papers
1. Visual Exploration of Communication in Command and Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual Exploration of Communication in Command and Control
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Information Visualization, July 10–12, London, England,ISSN 1093-9547, 2002, 141-146 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Communication is a central activity in command and control. However, analysing communication using linear transcription of large amounts of sequential data is tedious and time consuming. This paper describes an alternative approach for communication analysis based on visual exploration of abstract representations of communication. It introduces a visualisation technique based on the Attribute Explorer. The technique was implemented in a visualisation component embedded in a framework for coordinated presentation of temporal data. It is demonstrated using authentic communication data from a military exercise and a rescue operation.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14315 (URN)10.1109/IV.2002.1028769 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-02-27 Created: 2007-02-27 Last updated: 2009-02-26
2. High Precision Touch Screen Interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Precision Touch Screen Interaction
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors Computing Systems, April 5–10, Fort Lauderdale, USA, 2003, 105–112- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14316 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-27 Created: 2007-02-27 Last updated: 2009-02-26
3. Representing Military Units Using Nested Convex Hulls: Coping With Complexity in Command and Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representing Military Units Using Nested Convex Hulls: Coping With Complexity in Command and Control
2002 (English)In: Proceedings of the 1st Swedish-American Workshop on Modeling and Simulation, October 30–31, Orlando, USA., 2002, 25-32 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14317 (URN)
Available from: 2007-02-27 Created: 2007-02-27 Last updated: 2009-02-26

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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More styles
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  • de-DE
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Output format
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