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Exposure and injury risk in Swedish elite football: a comparison between seasons 1982 and 2001
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6883-1471
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2003 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 13, no 6, 364-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The long-term development of injury risk in Swedish male elite football was studied. Two prospective cohort studies from seasons 1982 and 2001 were compared with respect to exposure to football, injury incidence and injury severity.

The mean number of training sessions during the season had increased by 68% between 1982 and 2001 (142 vs. 238, P<0.001), whereas teams played more matches in 1982 (49 vs. 41, P=0.02). The total exposure to football had increased by 27%. Three out of four players incurred an injury in both seasons. In 2001, players suffered more training injuries due to an increased training exposure. Accounting for risk exposure, there was no difference in injury incidence or severity between the two seasons. The incidence was 8.3 injuries/ 1000 h of total exposure (4.6 in training and 20.6 in matches) in 1982, compared to 7.8 1000 h−1 (5.2 in training and 25.9 in matches) in 2001. Major injuries accounted for 9% of all injuries, corresponding to an incidence of 0.8 /1000 h of football, in both seasons.

A trend from semi-professionalism to full professionalism in Swedish elite football was seen during the last two decades. The injury risk did not change over the same period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 13, no 6, 364-370 p.
Keyword [en]
sports injuries, soccer injuries, incidence, epidemiology, prospective study
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14339DOI: 10.1046/j.1600-0838.2003.00327.xOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14339DiVA: diva2:23275
Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2014-02-11
In thesis
1. Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury.

All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries were documented by each team’s medical staff.

The amount of training increased by 68% between the 1982 and 2001 Swedish top male division seasons, reflecting the shift from semi-professionalism to full professionalism. No difference in injury incidence or injury severity was found between seasons. The injury incidence was 4.6 vs. 5.2/1000 training hours and 20.6 vs. 25.9/1000 match hours. The incidence of severe injury (absence >4 weeks) was 0.8/1000 hours in both seasons.

The Swedish and Danish top male divisions were followed during the spring season of 2001. A higher risk for training injury (11.8 vs. 6.0/1000 hours, p<0.01) and severe injury (1.8 vs. 0.7/1000 hours, p=0.002) was observed among the Danish players. Re-injury accounted for 30% and 24% of injuries in Denmark and Sweden respectively.

The Swedish top male division was studied over two consecutive seasons, 2001 and 2002, and comparison of training and match injury incidences between seasons showed similar results. Players who were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk for injury in the following season compared to non-injured players (relative risk 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.3). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groin injury and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likely to suffer an identical injury to the same limb in the following season, but no such relationship was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associated with an increased injury risk.

The effectiveness of a coach-controlled rehabilitation programme on the rate of re-injury was studied in a randomised controlled trial at amateur male level. In the control group, 23 of 79 injured players suffered a recurrence during the season compared to 10 of 90 players in the intervention group. There was a 75% lower re-injury risk in the intervention group for lower limb injuries (relative risk 0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.57). The preventive effect was greatest during the first weeks after return to play.

Both the male and female Swedish top divisions were followed during the 2005 season. Male elite players had a higher risk for training injury (4.7 vs. 3.8/1000 hours, p<0.05) and match injury (28.1 vs. 16.1/1000 hours, p<0.001) than women. However, no difference was observed in the rate of severe injury (0.7/1000 hours in both groups). The thigh was the most common site of injury in both men and women, while injury to the hip/groin was more frequent in men and to the knee in women. Knee sprain accounted for 31% and 37% of the time lost from training and match play in men and women respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, 2007
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 988
Keyword
Football, Injury prevention, Incidence, Re-injury, Rehabilitation, Elite
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8500 (URN)978-91-85715-51-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-03-30, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Serienumret i serien Linköping University medical dissertation är fel. Det korrkta numret är 988. The serial number in the series Linköping University medical dissertation is incorrect. The correct number is 988.Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2013-09-04

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Hägglund, MartinWaldén, MarkusEkstrand, Jan

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