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Previous injury as a risk factor for injury in elite football: a prospective study over two consecutive seasons
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6883-1471
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2006 (English)In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 40, 767-772 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous injury is often proposed to be a risk factorfor football injury, but most studies rely on players reportingtheir own medical history and are thus potentially subject torecall bias. Little is known about the natural variation ininjury pattern between seasons.

Objectives: To study whether prospectively recorded injuriesduring one season are associated with injuries sustained duringthe following season, and to compare injury risk and injurypattern between consecutive seasons.

Methods: The medical staffs of 12 elite Swedish male footballteams prospectively recorded individual exposure and time lossinjuries over two full consecutive seasons (2001 and 2002).A multivariate model was used to determine the relation betweenprevious injury, anthropometric data, and the risk of injury.

Results: The training and match injury incidences were similarbetween seasons (5.1 v 5.3 injuries/1000 training hours and25.9 v 22.7/1000 match hours), but analysis of injury severityand injury patterns showed variations between seasons. Playerswho were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk ofany injury in the following season compared with non-injuredplayers (hazard ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 4.3,p<0.0001). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groininjury, and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likelyto suffer an identical injury in the following season, whereasno such relation was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associatedwith an increased injury risk.

Conclusions: This study confirmed previous results showing thatprevious injury is an important risk factor for football injury.Overall injury incidences were similar between consecutive seasons,indicating that an injury surveillance study covering one fullseason can provide a reasonable overview of the injury problemamong elite football players in a specific environment. However,a prolonged study period is recommended for analyses of specificinjury patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 40, 767-772 p.
Keyword [en]
risk factor; injury; re-injury; football; soccer; multivariate model
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14341DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.2006.026609OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14341DiVA: diva2:23277
Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2014-02-05
In thesis
1. Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury.

All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries were documented by each team’s medical staff.

The amount of training increased by 68% between the 1982 and 2001 Swedish top male division seasons, reflecting the shift from semi-professionalism to full professionalism. No difference in injury incidence or injury severity was found between seasons. The injury incidence was 4.6 vs. 5.2/1000 training hours and 20.6 vs. 25.9/1000 match hours. The incidence of severe injury (absence >4 weeks) was 0.8/1000 hours in both seasons.

The Swedish and Danish top male divisions were followed during the spring season of 2001. A higher risk for training injury (11.8 vs. 6.0/1000 hours, p<0.01) and severe injury (1.8 vs. 0.7/1000 hours, p=0.002) was observed among the Danish players. Re-injury accounted for 30% and 24% of injuries in Denmark and Sweden respectively.

The Swedish top male division was studied over two consecutive seasons, 2001 and 2002, and comparison of training and match injury incidences between seasons showed similar results. Players who were injured in the 2001 season were at greater risk for injury in the following season compared to non-injured players (relative risk 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.3). Players with a previous hamstring injury, groin injury and knee joint trauma were two to three times more likely to suffer an identical injury to the same limb in the following season, but no such relationship was found for ankle sprain. Age was not associated with an increased injury risk.

The effectiveness of a coach-controlled rehabilitation programme on the rate of re-injury was studied in a randomised controlled trial at amateur male level. In the control group, 23 of 79 injured players suffered a recurrence during the season compared to 10 of 90 players in the intervention group. There was a 75% lower re-injury risk in the intervention group for lower limb injuries (relative risk 0.25; 95% CI 0.11-0.57). The preventive effect was greatest during the first weeks after return to play.

Both the male and female Swedish top divisions were followed during the 2005 season. Male elite players had a higher risk for training injury (4.7 vs. 3.8/1000 hours, p<0.05) and match injury (28.1 vs. 16.1/1000 hours, p<0.001) than women. However, no difference was observed in the rate of severe injury (0.7/1000 hours in both groups). The thigh was the most common site of injury in both men and women, while injury to the hip/groin was more frequent in men and to the knee in women. Knee sprain accounted for 31% and 37% of the time lost from training and match play in men and women respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för hälsa och samhälle, 2007
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 988
Keyword
Football, Injury prevention, Incidence, Re-injury, Rehabilitation, Elite
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8500 (URN)978-91-85715-51-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-03-30, Aulan, Hälsans Hus, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Serienumret i serien Linköping University medical dissertation är fel. Det korrkta numret är 988. The serial number in the series Linköping University medical dissertation is incorrect. The correct number is 988.Available from: 2007-03-14 Created: 2007-03-14 Last updated: 2013-09-04

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Hägglund, MartinWaldén, MarkusEkstrand, Jan

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