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Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for the strength test in the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2005 (English)In: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, Vol. 14, no 3, 273-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluates the standardized strength test in the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment of adults with healthy shoulders in a randomized, single-blind design. The following questions were to be answered: (1) Can the spring balance and a digital dynamometer both yield the same result? (2) What is the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the strength test? (3) Is the strength test sensitive to change in technique or affected by calculation with mean or maximum values? Ten subjects were included in a comparison of the Handyscale (digital dynamometer) and the mechanical spring balance for concurrent validity, resulting in intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99. For intraobserver and interobserver reliability, 2 observers tested 20 subjects with the Handyscale and retested them after 2 weeks. Regardless of technique during testing, this resulted in almost perfect agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.89–0.98). The digital dynamometer can replace the conventional spring balance. The standardized strength test in the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment is reliable in young subjects with healthy shoulders, independent of technique or whether calculated with mean or maximum values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 14, no 3, 273-278 p.
Keyword [en]
Constant-Murley shoulder asssessment
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14392DOI: 10.1016/j.jse.2004.08.001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14392DiVA: diva2:23388
Note
Original Publication: Kajsa Johansson and Lars Adolfsson, Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for the strength test in the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment, 2005, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, (14), 3, 273-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2004.08.001 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2007-04-05 Created: 2007-04-05 Last updated: 2009-11-22
In thesis
1. Patients with subacromial pain: Diagnosis, treatment and outcome in primary care
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patients with subacromial pain: Diagnosis, treatment and outcome in primary care
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med avhandlingen var att beskriva diagnostiken och utvärdera handläggningen i primärvård av patienter med subacromial smärta.

Avhandlingen omfattar fyra studier.

I den första studien användes ett frågeformulär och resultaten beskriver hur distriktsläkare och distriktssjukgymnaster i ett svenskt län diagnosticerar och handlägger primärvårdspatienter med subacromial smärta.

Den andra studien beskriver distriktsläkares och distriktssjukgymnasters tilltro till effekten av olika behandlingsmetoder för dessa patienter. Med utgångspunkt från de tilltrodda behandlingsmetoderna genomfördes en systematisk litteraturöversikt.

Den tredje studien utvärderar intra- och interbedömar reliabilitet för ett styrketest som ingår i ett utvärderingsinstrument ‘the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment’.

Den avslutande studien är en randomiserad klinisk studie som utvärderar och jämför effekten av två behandlingsstrategier, akupunktur och ultraljud, båda i kombination med hemträning.

Distriktsläkare och distriktssjukgymnaster visade sig använda en likartad diagnostik. Det troligaste valet av behandling för distriktsläkare var antiinflammatoriska läkemedel och kortisoninjektion i den subacromiala bursan och för distriktssjukgymnaster rörelseträning samt ergonomiska åtgärder.

Dock var de flesta behandlingsalternativen troliga val, vilket tolkas som en osäkerhet om behandlingarnas effekt.

Med utgångspunkt från de behandlingsmetoder som distriktsläkare och distriktssjukgymnaster tilltrodde som effektiva för patienter med subacromial smärta, genomfördes en systematisk kritisk litteraturöversikt. Fyrtio studier inkluderades och deras evidensnivå utvärderades. Endast kortisoninjektion i den subacromiala bursan visade sig ha definitiva bevis för effekt. Akupunktur visade sig ha troliga bevis för effekt och ultraljudsbehandling konkluderades som ineffektivt för patienter med subacromial smärta. Det förelåg en låg grad av samstämmighet mellan tilltro och tillgängliga vetenskapliga bevis.

En digital dynamometer kan ersätta den konventionella fjädervågen i det standardiserade styrketestet. En nästan perfekt överensstämmelse vad gäller både intra- och interbedömarreliabilitet vid test av unga skulderfriska personer, oberoende av om en ”håll emot-” eller ”dragteknik” användes eller om medel- eller maxvärden användes vid beräkningen av överensstämmelse.

I den randomiserade kliniska studien inkluderades 85 patienter. Tre utvärderingsinstrument, kombinerade i resultatanalysen, utvärderade förändringen under en uppföljningsperiod på 12 månader tillsammans med patienternas subjektiva skattning av resultatet.

Resultaten visade att akupunktur i kombination med hemträning är att föredra. Båda behandlingsgrupperna förbättrades signifikant och fortsatte förbättras över tid oberoende av behandling. De flesta patienter uppnådde ett tillfredställande behandlingsresultat efter 12 månader. Åtminstone tre fjärdedelar i varje behandlingsgrupp skattade sig mycket förbättrade eller helt återställda. Detta tolkas som en behandlingseffekt i kombination med naturalförloppet.

Avhandlingen har beskrivit handläggningen i primärvård av patienter med subacromial smärta och har bidragit med vetenskapliga bevis för distriktsläkare att behandla med kortisoninjektion i subacromiala bursan och för distriktssjukgymnaster att behandla med akupunktur kombinerat med hemträning.

Abstract [en]

The aim of the thesis was to describe the diagnostic approach and evaluate primary care management of patients with subacromial pain.

The thesis includes four different studies, a questionnaire study describing attitudes among general practitioners and physiotherapists in a Swedish county toward the diagnostic approach and management of primary care patients with subacromial pain; a combination of a systematic review and general practitioners and physiotherapists beliefs in interventions for patients with subacromial pain; a study of intra- and inter-observer reliability for the strength test in the Constant-Murley shoulder assessment; and a randomised clinical trial to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two treatment strategies for patients with subacromial pain, acupuncture combined with home exercises and continuous ultrasound combined with home exercises.

In the questionnaire study we described that general practitioners and physiotherapists have a uniform diagnostic approach. The most probable choice of treatment was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroid injection into the subacromial bursa for general practitioners and movement exercises together with ergonomics/adjustments at work for physiotherapists, but most treatments were probable choices, reflecting an uncertainty about their effectiveness.

The treatments trusted by general practitioners and physiotherapists were systematically reviewed. Forty studies were included and the level of evidence was summarised. Only corticosteroid injections into the subacromial bursa, had definitive evidence for efficacy. Acupuncture had tentative evidence for efficacy and therapeutic ultrasound was concluded as ineffective for patients with subacromial pain. The association between trusted treatments and available scientific evidence was weak.

A digital dynamometer can replace the conventional spring-balance in the standardised strength test. An almost perfect agreement was found for intra- and inter-observer reliability in young shoulder-healthy persons, regardless of whether a 'resisted-force' or a 'pull-force' was used or if calculated with mean or maximum values.

Eighty-five patients were included in the randomised clinical trial. Three shoulder scores, combined in the analysis, measure change during a 12 months follow-up together with a ‘patient self-evaluation’ of the experienced result. The results favoured acupuncture combined with home exercises. Both groups improved significantly and continued to improve over time independent of treatment and most of the patients reached a satisfactory result at 12 months. At least three fourths of the patients, in each treatment group, reported large improvements or felt completely recovered. This is interpreted as a combination of treatment effect and the natural course.

This thesis has described the primary care management of patients with subacromial pain and provided scientific evidence for general practitioners to use corticosteroid injection and for physiotherapists to use acupuncture combined with home exercises, when treating these patients.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2004. 84 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 834
Keyword
evidence based medicine, general practitioners, physiotherapy, rotator cuff, shoulder impingement syndrome
National Category
Family Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8648 (URN)91-7373-803-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-02-27, Aulan, Hälsans hus, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
On the day of the defence date the status on article III was Accepted and article IV was Submitted.Available from: 2007-04-05 Created: 2007-04-05 Last updated: 2012-01-25Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, KajsaAdolfsson, Lars

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