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Students’ participation in the realization of school science activities
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

I denna avhandling visar jag hur elever och lärare genomför NO-verksamhet i grundskolan. Avhandlingen illustrerar hur elevers frågor och uttryckta erfarenheter blir en del av ett etablerat ämnesinnehåll. Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur två agendor – varav den ena baseras på elevers deltagande och den andra baseras på ett etablerat ämnesinnehåll – orkestreras så att båda agendorna tillgodoses vid genomförandet av NO-verksamheten. Studien bygger på videoobservationer under NOlektioner i skolår 5-9. Analysen visar hur olika aktiviteter i genomförandet av ett NOprojekt orkestrerar elevers frågor och uttryckta erfarenheter med ett naturvetenskapligt innehåll. Analysen visar också hur naturvetenskapens karaktär, the Nature of Science (NOS), kommuniceras som följemening till instruktioner. Vidare illustrerar avhandlingen olika sätt att använda frågor för att överbrygga vetenskapliga och vardagliga sätt att kommunicera. Resultaten visar också olika roller som elevers erfarenheter antar i en NOverksamhet. Resultaten utgör en konkretisering av skolans naturvetenskap, the Nature of School Science (NOSS). Skolans naturvetenskapliga aktiviteter begripliggörs lämpligen om de betraktas utifrån sina egna syften och förutsättningar. I avhandlingen utvecklas begreppet NOSS för att lyfta fram sådana syften och förutsättningar såsom dessa framträder i aktiviteten.

Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates and considers how students and teachers realize school science activities. Students’ questions and accounts of their experiences as they become part of an established science content form the focus of this work. Its purpose is to provide an understanding of how two agendas –one, based on students’ participation and the other, based on the already established science content –are orchestrated so that both are accounted for. The empirical work is based on video-recorded observations in science classrooms. The findings show how different activities in the accomplishment of a school science project orchestrate students’ questions and accounts of experiences with the science content. The findings also show how the nature of science (NOS) is communicated as a by-product of instruction. In addition, different uses of questions for bridging science and everyday ways of communicating are shown in the results. The findings also indicate the different roles that students’ experiences acquire in a school science activity. These results should be seen as a step towards a definition of the nature of school science (NOSS). School science activities become intelligible if we consider them from a basis of their own purposes and prerequisites. The concept of NOSS is described to elicit such purposes and prerequisites as they become apparent in the activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier , 2007.
Series
Studies in Science and Technology Education, ISSN 1652-5051 ; 8
Keyword [en]
Science education, School science, NOS, NOSS, Nature of science, Nature of school science
Keyword [sv]
Naturvetenskapernas didaktik, NO-undervising, NOS, NOSS
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8772ISBN: 978-91-85831-99-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8772DiVA: diva2:23464
Public defence
2007-05-23, A137, Kocken, Barlastgatan 11, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2009-12-03
List of papers
1. Building a common platform on students’ participation.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building a common platform on students’ participation.
2007 (English)In: Journal of Science Education and Technology, ISSN 1059-0145, E-ISSN 1573-1839, Vol. 16, no 5, 369-377 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article sets out to examine how school science activities can encourage students’ participation while supporting a specific science content. One ordinary class with 12-year-old students was chosen and their regular classroom work was studied without intervention and with a minimum of interference. Lessons were video filmed, transcribed and analyzed focussing on the participants’ speech acts. It was found that students’ initiatives and experiences were important parts of their participation. The results show how students’ participation was orchestrated with a science content by means of four different kinds of activities. The activities are called ‘individual inventory of experiences’, ‘building a common platform of experiences’, ‘sharing new experiences’ and ‘concluding a common platform’. The activities form a foundation for participation in human biology topics. For example, to ‘build a common platform of experiences’ seems to level out students’ different prerequisites for participating in subsequent tasks. Furthermore, to ‘conclude a common platform’ implied a checkpoint of the shared new experiences. The activities support students’ tentative use of scientific words as well as their learning of what counts as knowledge in the school science setting. However, it can be questioned if the time spent on each separate activity is necessary or if similar achievements could be made even if some activities were integrated. The question is open for further research.

Keyword
Science project, Teaching activities, Science learning
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14411 (URN)10.1007/s10956-007-9063-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Meaning making of precision and procedures in school science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Meaning making of precision and procedures in school science
2007 (English)In: Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, ISSN 1492-6156, E-ISSN 1942-4051, Vol. 8, no 1, 25-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article sets out to examine how meaning is made in classroom activities during a science class in lower secondary school. The analysis presented is based on video recordings and observations in a class with 15-year-old students. The findings consist of three themes. First, a great emphasis was put on precision and second, on procedures. Students’ questions and suggestions regarding the lesson content were handled in a way that favored these two components. Third, findings identify precision and procedures as two nonnegotiable features of school science. It is suggested that if the rationales for these features of school science are communicated to students, their participation in, and understanding of, the enterprise are facilitated.

Abstract [fr]

Cet article propose d’analyser comment les signifiés sont créés au cours des activités en classe dans les cours de sciences au premier cycle du secondaire. Notre analyse se fonde sur des enregistrements vidéo et des observations de classe portant sur des élèves de 15 ans. Les résultats portent sur trois aspects. D’abord, une grande importance a été accordée à la précision. Ensuite, ce sont les procédures qui ont retenu notre attention. En effet, les questions et suggestions des étudiants au sujet du contenu des leçons ont été traitées de façon à favoriser ces deux composantes. Troisièmement, les résultats indiquent que la précision et les procédures sont deux aspects non négociables des cours de sciences à l’école. Nous estimons que, si la raison d’être de ces composantes des cours de sciences sont communiquées aux étudiants, cela favorisera leur niveau de participation et de compréhension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2007
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14412 (URN)10.1080/14926150802152194 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. Questions as a tool for bridging scientific and everyday language games
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questions as a tool for bridging scientific and everyday language games
2007 (English)In: Cultural Studies of Science Education, ISSN 1871-1502, E-ISSN 1871-1510, Vol. 2, no 1, 265-279 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown how students can shift between different ways of communicating about natural phenomena. The point of departure in this text is that school science comprises science ways to communicate as well as everyday ways to communicate. In school science activities transitions, from for example everyday ways to explain to science ways to explain, occur and the purpose of this paper is to show what role questions play in these transitions. Data consists of video observations of a group of 24 students, 15 years of age, doing their ordinary school science work without my interference in their planning. Relevant conversations including questions were transcribed. The analysis was made by examining the establishment of relations between utterances in the transcribed conversations. Relations that bridge science and everyday language games are described in the results. Questions that were formulated in an everyday language game illustrate the difficulties of making transitions to a science language game. Without teacher guidance, students’ questions are potential promoters for making the topic drift and to develop into something totally different from the topic as planned by the teacher. However, questions promote transitions to an everyday language game. These can be used by teachers for example to adjust an everyday explanation and guide students in making science knowledge useful in daily life.

Keyword
Meaning making, Science education, Questions, Everyday explanations, Science explanations
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14413 (URN)10.1007/s11422-006-9043-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
4. Experiences and their role in Science Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences and their role in Science Education
2005 (English)In: Journal of Baltic Science Education, ISSN 1648-3898, Vol. 1, no 7, 31-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses what role re-actualized experiences may have in a school science setting. Observations were done in two Swedish schools with emphasis on teacher centred lessons. Data consist of field notes, recordings and documents. Two major themes of the results can be highlighted. First, the teachers' and pupils' mutual interest in pupils' re-actualized experiences. Second, the limited elaboration of those. These issues are discussed due to teachers' work with different purposes. We call that teachers' orchestration of multiple agendas in science education. Re-actualized experiences appear to become means for motivating pupils in their work with different tasks in order to make them cope.

Keyword
science -- Study & teaching, education, teachers, school children, experience, learning science, science education
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14414 (URN)
Available from: 2007-04-20 Created: 2007-04-20

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