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Design of circuits for a robust clocking scheme
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
2004 (English)In: Proc. 12th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conf., MELECON'04, 2004, Vol. 1, 185-188 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design of a clock distribution network in a digital integrated circuit is challenging in terms of obtaining low power consumption, low waveform degradation, low clock skew and low simultaneous switching noise. In this work we aim at alleviating these design restrictions by using a clock buffer with reduced size and a D flip-flop circuit with relaxed constraints on the rise and fall times of the clock. According to simulations the energy dissipation of a D flip-flop, implemented in a 0.35 μm process, increases with only 21% when the fall time of the clock is increased from 0.05 ns to 7.0 ns. Considering that smaller clock buffers can be used there is a potential of power savings by using the suggested clocking scheme.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 1, 185-188 p.
Keyword [en]
buffer circuits, circuit noise, circuit simulation, clocks, digital integrated circuits, flip-flops, integrated circuit modelling, low-power electronics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14443DOI: 10.1109/MELCON.2004.1346804ISBN: 0-7803-8271-4OAI: diva2:23512
Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2009-10-05
In thesis
1. Reduction of Substrate Noise in Mixed-Signal Circuits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Substrate Noise in Mixed-Signal Circuits
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In many consumer products, e.g., cellular phones and handheld computers, both digital and analog circuits are required. Nowadays, it is possible to implement a large subsystem or even a complete system, that earlier required several chips, on a single chip. A system on chip (SoC) has generally the advantages of lower power consumption and a smaller fabrication cost compared with multi-chip solutions. The switching of digital circuits generates noise that is injected into the silicon substrate. This noise is known as substrate noise and is spread through the substrate to other circuits. The substrate noise received in an analog circuit degrades the performance of the circuit. This is a major design issue in mixed-signal ICs where analog and digital circuits share the same substrate.

Two new noise reduction methods are proposed in this thesis work. The first focuses n reducing the switching noise generated in digital clock buffers. The strategy is to use a clock with long rise and fall times in conjunction with a special D flip-flop. It relaxes the constraints on the clock distribution net, which also reduce the design effort. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS technology show that the method can be implemented in an IC with low cost in terms of speed and power consumption. A noise reduction up to 50% is obtained by using the method. The measured power consumption of the digital circuit, excluding the clock buffer, increased 14% when the rise and fall times of the clock were increased from 0.5 ns to 10 ns. The corresponding increase in propagation delay was less than 0.5 ns corresponding to an increase of 50% in propagation delay of the registers.

The second noise reduction method focuses on reducing simultaneous switching noise below half the clock frequency. This frequency band is assumed to be the signal band of an analog circuit. The idea is to use circuits that have as close to periodic power supply currents as possible to obtain low simultaneous switching noise below the clock in the frequency domain. For this purpose we use precharged differential cascode switch logic together with a novel D flip-flop. To evaluate the method two pipelined adders have been implemented on transistor level in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology, where the novel circuit is implemented with our method and the reference circuit with static CMOS logic together with a TSPC D flip-flop. According to simulation results, the frequency components in the analog signal band can be attenuated from 10 dB up to 17 dB using the proposed method. The cost is mainly an increase in power consumption of almost a factor of three.

Comparisons between substrate coupling in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and conventional bulk technology are made using simple models. The objective is to get an understanding of how the substrate coupling differs in SOI from the bulk technology. The results show that the SOI has less substrate coupling if no guard band is used, up to a certain frequency that is dependent of the test case. Introducing a guard band resulted in a higher attenuation of substrate noise in bulk than in SOI.

An on-chip measurement circuit aiming at measuring simultaneous switching noise has been designed in a 0.13 μm SOI CMOS technology. The measuring circuit uses a single comparator per channel where several passes are used to capture the waveform. Measurements on a fabricated testchip indicate that the measuring circuit works as intended.

A small part of this thesis work has been done in the area of digit representation in digital circuits. A new approach to convert a number from two’s complement representation to a minimum signed-digit representation is proposed. Previous algorithms are working either from the LSB to the MSB (right-to-left) or from the MSB to the LSB (left-to-right). The novelty in the proposed algorithm is that the conversion is done from left-to-right and right-to-left concurrently. Using the proposed algorithm, the critical path in a conversion circuit can be nearly halved compared with the previous algorithms. The area and power consumption, of the implementation of the proposed algorithm, are somewhere between the left-to-right and right-to-left implementations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för systemteknik, 2007
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1094
Mixed-signal, Substrate noise, Substrate modeling, Simultaneous switching noise, SSN, Digital, Analog, Clock
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8813 (URN)978-91-85715-12-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-10, Key1, Key-huset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Articles I, II, III, IV, VII and IX are published with permisson from IEEE dated 07/05/18. Copyright IEEE.Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2009-04-21

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