A protocol for iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside that minimises nonspecific vasodilatory effects
2004 (English)In: Microvascular research, ISSN 0026-2862, Vol. 67, no 2, 197-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Iontophoresis of vasoactive substances is a promising tool for studying pharmacological aspects of the (patho)physiology of the microvasculature. However, nonspecific microvascular responses are a common problem in most protocols used. We studied the effect of current density (mA/cm2), charge density (mC/cm2), drug concentration (mass %) and vehicle concentration (M) on the nonspecific vasodilatation during iontophoresis of sodium chloride, acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP).
We found that nonspecific vasodilatation depended on current density and charge density in both anodal and cathodal iontophoresis. The responses to ACh and SNP were dependent on current density, charge density and drug concentration. We found that by limiting current density (<0.01 mA/cm2) and charge density (<7.8 mC/cm2) and with adjusted concentrations for drugs and vehicles, it is possible to prevent nonspecific effects during iontophoresis of ACh and SNP, while maximum drug effects (plateaus in the dose–response curves) are still obtained. These new findings are important for future iontophoresis studies in which vasoactive drugs are used to assess microvascular function because the presented approach has advantages compared to older techniques, which mainly have attempted to suppress or compensate for the nonspecific responses during iontophoresis by the use of local anaesthetics or the measurement of drug-minus-vehicle responses, both of which present well-known experimental shortcomings.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 67, no 2, 197-202 p.
Microcirculation, Skin, Laser Doppler, Nonspecific vasodilatation, Sodium chloride, Acetylcholine, Nitroprusside
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14458DOI: 10.1016/j.mvr.2003.12.003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14458DiVA: diva2:23536