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Exploring Tactical Command and Control: A Role-Playing Simulation Approach
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, GIS - Geographical Information Science Group. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis concerns command and control (C2) work at the tactical level in emergency and crisis response operations. The presented research addresses two main research questions. The first question is whether it is feasible to simulate and study C2 work in the initial stages of response operations by means of role-playing simulations. If so, the second question is how to develop and execute role-playing simulations in order to explore this type of C2 work in a methodologically sound way. The presented research is based on simulations as methodological means for qualitative research. The utilized simulation approach is scenario-based real-time role-playing simulations grounded in models of C2 work and response operations. Three simulations have been conducted based on this methodology and are reported in this thesis. Simulation I focused on the work practice of cooperating commanders whose activities may be enhanced by the use of artifacts. Simulation II concerned the issues of operationalizing advanced technological artifacts in rapid response expert teams. Simulation III gave attention to the role improvisation in C2 teams designated for international operations. The results from the simulations and from the work conducted and presented in this thesis contribute with knowledge and experience from using role-playing simulations to study C2 work. This includes the methodological aspects of designing and conducting role-playing simulations such as scenarios, realism, evaluation and simulation format and control. It also includes the identification of the main application and problem areas for which the methodology is suitable, that is explorative qualitative inquiries and evaluation studies. The thesis provides new insights in C2 work with respect to adaptive behavior and improvisation. The thesis also identifies areas that need to be considered in order to further develop the role-playing simulation approach and its applicability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2009. , 78 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1266
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20641ISBN: 978-91-7393-571-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-20641DiVA: diva2:235388
Public defence
2009-10-09, Visionen, hus B, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Role-Playing Exercise: A Real-Time Approach to Study Collaborative Command and Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role-Playing Exercise: A Real-Time Approach to Study Collaborative Command and Control
2006 (English)In: International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems, ISSN 0218-7965, Vol. 11, no 4, 218-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During emergency response, emergency management and its command andcontrol system are particularly challenged as the responding taskforce putscountermeasures in place intensively and dynamically. To respondeffectively these countermeasures are typically coordinated throughcollaborative work of commanding staff. Information seeking,communication, and data sharing are essential elements of this collaborativecommand and control work. The traditional research methods used incommand and control research do not always allow researchers to fullyinvestigate these elements of collaborative work. In this paper, we describethe role-playing exercise, a real-time approach combining role-playing gamesand emergency management exercises, for studying collaborative command and control, particularly during improvisation and adaptation work. We alsodescribe the practical application of the role-playing exercise approach in theALFA-05 research study. This is followed by a discussion on methodologicallessons learned from this study. This includes simulation realism and control,ecological and communication settings, and data collection. Our experiencesuggests that the role-playing exercise approach can be considered as afeasible method for research studies, where interaction and communicationof commanding staff are in focus.

Keyword
Emergency response, command and control, collaboration, simulation, real-time approach, role-playing exercise
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20636 (URN)
Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-15Bibliographically approved
2. Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Command and Control Practice: Adaptation, Self-Regulation and Supporting Behavior
2009 (English)In: International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISSN 1937-9390, Vol. 1, no 2, 47-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a study, which aimed to document the work practice ofa team of commanders responding to an emergency, and to identify areasand activities, that may be enhanced by the use of command and controltools. The study was based on a “human-in-the-loop” simulation withemergency management commanders as participants. Communicationanalyses – episodic analysis, socio-metric status and communication roles –were used to assess coordination among the commanders. The resultsindicate that the commanders used informal arrangements within theestablished command and control structures to perform various informalfunctions and take on diverse communication roles across organizational anddomain boundaries. Cross-domain and cross-organizational knowledge wasthe most important enabler of this type of coordination. General toolsproviding methods and aids to indicate and support informal functions andcommunication roles were identified as absent.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20637 (URN)
Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2009-09-15Bibliographically approved
3. Do Experts Teams in Rapid Crisis Response Use Their Tools Efficiently?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Experts Teams in Rapid Crisis Response Use Their Tools Efficiently?
2009 (English)In: Advances inManagement Information Systems: Volume on Information Systemsfor Emergency ManagementEdited by: Bartel Van de Walle, Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, 2009, 1, 126-159 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The operational use of earth observation technologies by expert teams in thecrisis response domain is a critical socio-technical process. The uniquecontext and characteristics of every crisis have an impact on the extent towhich these technologies, such as computer-based tools for objectidentification, feature recognition, and change detection, will be used, andhow the actual work and the interactions of expert teams deploying thetechnologies will emerge. Beyond the mere technical characteristics offunctioning and operating the earth observation technologies, crucialprerequisites for their successful application in a crisis situation arepredominantly set by “soft” factors such as management, process control,and clear and accurate communication. The knowledge of these factors isessential in order to build and train expert teams capable of using thesetechnologies and performing effectively under a wide variety of situationsand conditions. This chapter reviews experience and lessons learned from a simulation of operational deployment of earth observation technologies byexpert teams in rapid crisis response. The exploitation of these technologiesby expert teams while responding to a nuclear emergency scenario isstudied. On the basis of the scenario-based exercise methodology, a real-timesimulation was prepared and executed. In this simulation, three teamscomposed of experts were given the task of providing rapid mappingproducts within thirty-three hours. During this period the teams had accessto satellite imagery as well as off-the-shelf and custom computer-based tools.This chapter identifies opportunities and constraints regarding the practicalapplication of earth observation technologies by expert teams in rapid crisisresponse. The chapter also suggests areas for further research.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20639 (URN)978-0-7656-2134-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2013-04-30Bibliographically approved
4. A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model-Based Simulation Approach to Study Role Improvisation of a Command Staff
2009 (English)In: IEEE transactions on systems, man and cybernetics. Part A. Systems and humans, ISSN 1083-4427, E-ISSN 1558-2426Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This research gives attention to role improvisation in command and controlteams designated for crisis and disaster response operations in aninternational context. The paper reports a study, which had the goal todevelop, on the bases of real response operations, a role-playing simulationto explore and study role improvisation in highly realistic situations. Thestudy was based on a single-case, the command staff of the SwedishResponse Team. The objective of the study was achieved by (a) identifyingcritical areas concerning role improvisation of the command staff, (b)proposing a model-based simulation design that incorporates these areas,and (c) preparing and executing a role-playing simulation based on thisdesign. The critical areas were identified from two previous responseoperations. The analysis utilized a phenomenological approach, and wasbased on twenty-two interviews and three workshops. The identified critical areas were integrated in the simulation design by means of the initial set-up,scenario stimuli, and interactions with the simulation staff. This was basedon a synthesis of the models of command and control and responseoperations, scenario and tasks, simulation approach and manipulation of theimprovisation variables. The developed simulation was a scenario-basedreal-time role-playing simulation with a progressively unfolding scenario.The scenario was based on events taking place during the 2007 Californiawildfires. The simulation was evaluated by assessing the subjective realism.The paper reports experience from designing and conducting the roleplayingsimulation. It identifies demands and requirements, which have tobe met in order to simulate highly realistic situations. It also demonstrateshow, on the bases of real response operations, such simulations can bedesigned. Lastly, it also identifies areas that require attention in order o usethe role-playing simulations to explore and study role improvisation.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20640 (URN)
Available from: 2009-09-15 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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