liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2006 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14491OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14491DiVA: diva2:23587
Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2013-11-29
In thesis
1. Life-Cycle Considerations for Environmental Management of the Swedish Railway Infrastructure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-Cycle Considerations for Environmental Management of the Swedish Railway Infrastructure
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med den här avhandlingen är att förbättra möjligheter till miljöledning av järnvägens infrastruktur genom att utveckla en metod för att rikta in ansträngningar på att minska miljöpåverkan från infrastrukturens produkter. Metodens används i ett byggprojekt och dess robusthet blir testad. Den använder den materialrelaterade energianvändningen för att studera miljöpåverkan från infrastrukturen. Vidare studeras vilka förutsättningar och hinder det finns för att införa ett livscykelperspektiv i Banverkets organisation.

Först analyserades de miljömässiga försättningarna genom en jämförande studie med vägtransportsystemet. Fokus låg även på infrastrukturens del i miljöpåverkan i jämförelse med själva transporterna i de bägge systemen. Sedan presenterades metoden och analyserades med avseende på användbarhet och robusthet. I de senare testen gavs materialtransporternas del av miljöpåverkan samt energiindikatorns miljörelevans extra utrymme.Slutligen studerades de organisatoriska förutsättningarna för att introducera metoden och införa ett livscykelperspektiv vid materialhanteringen.

De organisatoriska förutsättningarna präglas mycket av Banverket miljöhistoria som främst handlar om miljögifter kopplade till lokala eller regionala miljöproblem. Dessutom finns det få miljörelaterade krav utifrån, vilket delvis kan förklara att livscykelperspektivet i mångt och mycket saknats inom organisationens materialhantering. Miljökraven på Banverkets inköp av produkter är oftast lagkrav, men eftersom de lagkrav som har anknytning till de globala miljöproblemen, vilka främst kan kopplas till uppströms produktframställning, inte är tillräckligt specifika, har organisationen svårt att översätta dessa till relevanta miljökrav vid upphandling. De avdelningar inom Banverket som är mest berörda av upphandlingen och arbetet med kravspecifikationer kräver mer stöd och kunskap för att kunna införa livscykelperspektivet i materialhanteringen.

De upplevda miljöfördelar som järnvägen tycks ha över vägtrafiken är inte helt självklara. Vikten av indirekt miljöpåverkan från infrastrukturen är större för järnvägstrafiken än för vägtrafiken och detta i kombination med att den materialrelaterade energianvändningen är nästan uteslutande fossilbaserad leder till att miljöförsprånget minskar jämfört med trafikens miljöpåverkan. Om vägtrafiken minskar sitt fossilberoende i användningsfasen så måste järnvägssektorn antingen minska energianvändningen eller fossilberoendet i produktionen av järnvägsprodukter för att fortfarande kunna sägas ha miljöfördelar. För att kunna göra det senare måste nya perspektiv introduceras i Banverkets organisation. Metoden som presenteras i denna avhandling kan användas för att introducera dessa nya livscykelperspektiv och bidra till att Banverkets ansträngningar fokuseras på att minska infrastrukturens miljöpåverkan. Denna nya kunskap kan användas vid design av nya järnvägsprodukter och vid upphandlingen av dessa. Dessutom visar avhandlingen på var utförligare miljöanalyser av produkter kan behövas. Metoden använder en energiindikator för att uppskatta miljöpåverkan från materialanvändningen. Denna indikator är lätt att använda för miljöanalysen vilket gör det möjligt att enkelt introducera och inrikta livscykeltänkandet i organisationens miljöledning. Något som annars kan ligga utanför dess expertis, budget och tidsresurser.

Metoden identifierar de tre produkter som är absolut viktigast att fokusera på om man vill minska miljöpåverkan från materialanvändningen i infrastrukturen. Dessa är räl, slipers och ballastmaterial där räl har överlägset störst användning av uppströms materialrelaterad energi. Genom att introducera miljökrav tidigt i designprocessen vid införande av dessa produkter kan stora miljövinster göras. Teknikavdelningarna samt upphandlarna behöver därför stöd för att introducera dessa starkare krav på uppströms miljöpåverkan.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis has been to develop an approach for the scoping of environmental aspects regarding material use in the Swedish railway infrastructure in order to contribute to strategic environmental management. This is done through the development of a method based on the concepts of embodied energy and material flows, which is then tested for its robustness. Furthermore, a study has been made on which preconditions for life-cycle considerations there are for the manager of the Swedish railway infrastructure and how this relates to the actual environmental pressures from the product. The study has used the Swedish National Rail Authority, Banverket, as a case.

First the environmental context was studied by an analysis of how the environmental pressure from material use compares to the operations phase and to other transport systems. Secondly, a scoping method for environmental pressure from material use in a large organization was developed and tests performed on its use and its robustness. Special focus was on the importance of materials transports and the environmental relevance of the energy indicator used. Finally, an organizational context was presented which showed the possibilities and hindrances to implementing life-cycle considerations in the environmental management of the Swedish railway infrastructure.

It seems difficult to incorporate life-cycle considerations in an organization whose history is characterized by its work on solving specific local environmental issues. In addition, there seem to be limited pressures either from outside or inside the organization to adopt life-cycle environmental management. There is a need for clearer and more specific policy instruments governing many of the global environmental issues pertaining to upstream environmental pressures in order to make it easier for organizations to translate these into something useful in their environmental management. The departments with the most capacity to influence the environmental pressures from material use are demanding support and more knowledge about life-cycle considerations in order to set more relevant environmental requirements on the products.

The perceived environmental advantage of the rail transport sector over road transports should not be taken for granted. The importance of the indirect environmental pressures for the rail infrastructure decreases this advantage, since its material-related energy use is almost entirely from non-renewable sources. Thus the rail transport sector needs to start decreasing the use of energy for production of railway infrastructure products or its reliance on nonrenewable energy sources for production.

In order to start working with the environmental management of the railway products there is a need to adopt and introduce new perspectives. The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce these new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to the organization’s environmental management. It can also be employed to identify hot spots in the organization’s material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used in the design of new products, to set environmental demands in purchasing, and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. It can also be used to broaden the perspectives in, for instance, environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessments and environmental reviews. The relative ease with which this indicator is collected and calculated can make it possible for the organization to include new environmental dimensions in their environmental management, which could otherwise be outside their expertise, budget or time frame.

The scoping of environmental pressures, by using the approach presented in the thesis, pointed to three important railway infrastructure products. These are the products that Banverket needs to focus on first. One of the most important tasks in incorporating life-cycle considerations for products is to set environmental requirements when introducing new products to the material supply process. The requirements should already be present in the design phase of the products. Thus it is essential that the product developers get the support needed in finding relevant environmental criteria for the new product. One way to accomplish this is to employ an environmental coordinator with sufficient knowledge in the technical departments to work together with the design teams as an integral part of the design process.

The overall environmental pressures from the railway transport system depend substantially on the upstream environmental pressures generated by the production of the infrastructure products. These pressures are totally dominated by three products. There is a large improvement potential in focusing the environmental management on these products by posing environmental requirements on their suppliers, in order to decrease the overall environmental pressures generated by the railway transport system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, 2006. 66 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1064
Keyword
Enviornmental management, railways, life cycle perspective, environmental pressures, material use, Miljöledning, järnvägar, livscykelperspektiv, miljöpåverkan, materialhantering
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8875 (URN)91-85643-27-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-12-15, A2, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2010-01-14
2. Scoping environmental pressure from material use for strategic environmental management : case of the Swedish National Rail Authority
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scoping environmental pressure from material use for strategic environmental management : case of the Swedish National Rail Authority
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aim is to develop an approach for scoping of environmental aspects regarding the material use in a large organisation in order to contribute to a strategic environmental management. The study object is the Swedish National Rail Authority.

The transport sector is closely linked to the environmental pressures caused by our society, consequently a lot of studies have been made regarding the contribution from different transport sectors. However, the bulk of these studies concerns only the transports and thus omits the environmental pressures from the material use needed to support these sectors, i.e. building and maintaining the infrastructure. The rail transport sector is generally conceived to be the most environmentally adapted land transport mode. However, this notion commonly only includes environmental pressures from the traffic phase.

The method uses "material related energy use" and CO2-emissions as a proxy to environmental pressures from material use. Furthermore, the robustness of the method is tested by the use of scenarios and sensitivity analysis. In particular, the environmental relevance of the energy indicator is studied.

The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to an organisation's environmental management. It can be employed to identify hot spots in an organisation's material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used to influence the design of new products, to set environmental demands for purchasing and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. The approach can also be used to broaden the perspectives in for instance environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessment and environmental reviews.

In the studied rail building project, 3 products constituted 99.5 weight-% of the total material use. These products were steel rails, concrete ties and ballast materials. They share the common characteristics of being noncomplex, non-toxic and made out of very few materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2005. 42 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1152
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39460 (URN)48627 (Local ID)91-85297-53-4 (ISBN)48627 (Archive number)48627 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-11-29

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Link to Ph.D. thesis

Authority records BETA

Svensson, NiclasEklund, Mats

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Svensson, NiclasEklund, Mats
By organisation
Environmental Technology and ManagementThe Institute of Technology
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

urn-nbn

Altmetric score

urn-nbn
Total: 133 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf