liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
On MRI turbulence quantification
Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Show others and affiliations
2009 (English)In: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 0730-725X, E-ISSN 1873-5894, Vol. 27, no 7, 913-922 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Turbulent flow, characterized by velocity fluctuations, accompanies many forms of cardiovascular disease and may contribute to their progression and hemodynamic consequences. Several studies have investigated the effects of turbulence on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal. Quantitative MRI turbulence measurements have recently been shown to have great potential for application both in human cardiovascular flow and in engineering flow. In this article, potential pitfalls and sources of error in MRI turbulence measurements are theoretically and numerically investigated. Data acquisition strategies suitable for turbulence quantification are outlined. The results show that the sensitivity of MRI turbulence measurements to intravoxel mean velocity variations is negligible, but that noise may degrade the estimates if the turbulence encoding parameter is set improperly. Different approaches for utilizing a given amount of scan time were shown to influence the dynamic range and the uncertainty in the turbulence estimates due to noise. The findings reported in this work may be valuable for both in vitro and in vivo studies employing MRI methods for turbulence quantification.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 27, no 7, 913-922 p.
Keyword [en]
Turbulence quantification, Turbulent flow, Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, Constriction, Numerical flow phantom
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20746DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2009.05.004ISI: 000269613000004OAI: diva2:235967

Original Publication: Petter Dyverfeldt, Roland Gårdhagen, Andreas Sigfridsson, Matts Karlsson and Tino Ebbers, On MRI turbulence quantification, 2009, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, (27), 7, 913-922. Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam.

Available from: 2009-09-18 Created: 2009-09-18 Last updated: 2015-10-08
In thesis
1. Extending MRI to the Quantification of Turbulence Intensity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending MRI to the Quantification of Turbulence Intensity
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In cardiovascular medicine, the assessment of blood flow is fundamental to the understanding and detection of disease. Many pharmaceutical, interventional, and surgical treatments impact the flow. The primary purpose of the cardiovascular system is to drive, control and maintain blood flow to all parts of the body. In the normal cardiovascular system, fluid transport is maintained at high efficiency and the blood flow is essentially laminar. Disturbed and turbulent blood flow, on the other hand, appears to be present in many cardiovascular diseases and may contribute to their initiation and progression. Despite strong indications of an important interrelationship between flow and cardiovascular disease, medical imaging has lacked a non-invasive tool for the in vivo assessment of disturbed and turbulent flow. As a result, the extent and role of turbulence in the blood flow of humans have not yet been fully investigated.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a versatile tool for the non-invasive assessment of flow and has several important clinical and research applications, but might not yet have reached its full potential. Conventional MRI techniques for the assessment of flow are based on measurements of the mean velocity within an image voxel. The mean velocity corresponds to the first raw moment of the distribution of velocities within a voxel. An MRI framework for the quantification of any moment (mean, standard deviation, skew, etc.) of arbitrary velocity distributions is presented in this thesis.

Disturbed and turbulent flows are characterized by velocity fluctuations that are superimposed on the mean velocity. The intensity of these velocity fluctuations can be quantified by their standard deviation, which is a commonly used measure of turbulence intensity. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel MRI method for the quantification of turbulence intensity. This method is mathematically derived and experimentally validated. Limitations and sources of error are investigated and guidelines for adequate application of MRI measurements of turbulence intensity are outlined. Furthermore, the method is adapted to the quantification of turbulence intensity in the pulsatile blood flow of humans and applied to a wide range of cardiovascular diseases. In these applications, elevated turbulence intensity was consistently detected in regions where highly disturbed flow was anticipated, and the effects of potential sources of errors were small.

Diseased heart valves are often replaced with prosthetic heart valves, which, in spite of improved benefits and durability, continue to fall short of matching native flow patterns. In an in vitro setting, MRI was used to visualize and quantify turbulence intensity in the flow downstream from four common designs of prosthetic heart valves. Marked differences in the extent and degree of turbulence intensity were detected between the different valves.

Mitral valve regurgitation is a common valve lesion associated with progressive left atrial and left ventricular remodelling, which may often require surgical correction to avoid irreversible ventricular dysfunction. The spatiotemporal dynamics of flow disturbances in mitral regurgitation were assessed based on measurements of flow patterns and turbulence intensity in a group of patients with significant regurgitation arising from similar valve lesions. Peak turbulence intensity occurred at the same time in all patients and the total turbulence intensity in the left atrium appeared closely related to the severity of regurgitation.

MRI quantification of turbulence intensity has the potential to become a valuable tool in investigating the extent, timing and role of disturbed blood flow in the human cardiovascular system, as well as in the assessment of the effects of different therapeutic options in patients with vascular or valvular disorders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 73 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1297
Turbulence intensity, cardiovascular disease, blood flow, hemodynamics, magnetic resonance imaging, generalized phase-contrast MRI, turbulent flow
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-52561 (URN)978-91-7393-453-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-12, Elsa-Brändströmsalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Campus US. Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Available from: 2010-01-19 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2013-09-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(390 kB)558 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 390 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Dyverfeldt, PetterGårdhagen, RolandSigfridsson, AndreasKarlsson, MattsEbbers, Tino
By organisation
Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV)Clinical PhysiologyFaculty of Health SciencesApplied Thermodynamics and Fluid MechanicsThe Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Clinical Physiology
In the same journal
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 558 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 184 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link