UVA/B induced redox alterations and apoptosis in human melanocytes
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers and accounts for about three-quarter of all skin cancer deaths worldwide. Despite compelling evidence that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes melanoma the knowledge how various wavelength spectra affect the balance between proliferation and apoptosis controlling the homeostasis of the melanocyte population is still limited. The aim of this thesis was to elucidate the regulation of UVA/B induced apoptotic signaling in human epidermal melanocytes in vitro in relation to redox alterations and antioxidant photoprotection.
UVA irradiation induced changes in plasma membrane stability, decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In comparison, melanocyte plasma membrane was markedly resistant to UVB irradiation although apoptosis was triggered. Thus, UVA irradiation should not be overlooked as an etiologic factor in melanoma development. Further, after irradiation with UVA/B we found alterations in redox state manifested by a reduction of intracellular GSH levels, translocation of nuclear factor-κB from the cytosol to the nucleus, an increase of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis, and an increased apoptosis frequency. α-Tocopherol provided photoprotection through several modes of action affecting redox alterations and signaling, stabilizing the plasma membrane, and decreased proliferation and apoptosis rate, while β-carotene did not show the same protective capacity. Altogether, α-tocopherol might be a useful substance in protecting melanocytes from UV induced damage.
We demonstrate UVA/B irradiation to activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in melanocytes where translocation of Bcl-2 family proteins to the mitochondria modulates the apoptosis signal. Interestingly, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins generally thought to be attached to membranes, were localized in the cytosol before UV irradiation and translocated to the mitochondria in the surviving population, which might be a critical event in preventing apoptotic cell death. Lysosomal cathepsins were released to the cytosol acting as pro-apoptotic mediators upstream of activation and translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. When melanocytes were exposed to UVA, p53 participated in apoptosis regulation through interaction with Bcl-2 family proteins, while UVB induced p53-transcriptional activity and apoptosis involving lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Thus, depending on the UV wavelength p53 mediated apoptosis in melanocytes by transcriptional dependent or independent activity. These results emphasize p53 as an important pro-apoptotic component in the regulation of apoptosis.
This thesis gives new insight in the harmful and various effects of different wavelengths within the UV spectrum on human melanocytes in vitro. Improved knowledge of the apoptosis regulatory systems in melanocytes might lead to a better understanding of the formation of pigment nevi and malignant melanoma and, in the future, provide better strategies to prevent and eliminate tumor development and progression.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för biomedicin och kirurgi , 2007. , 58 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1004
UV, melanocyte, apoptosis, glutathione, p53
Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8880ISBN: 978-91-85831-84-5OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-8880DiVA: diva2:23600
2007-06-05, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Ingång 65, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings universitet, SE-581 85 Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Cotgreave, Ian, Professor
Rosdahl, IngerÖllinger, Karin
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