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Photografted poly(ethylene glycol) matrix for affinity interaction studies
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2007 (English)In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 1, 287-295 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based matrix for studies of affinity interactions is developed and demonstrated. The PEG matrix, less than 0.1 μm thick, is graft copolymerized onto a cycloolefin polymer from a mixture of PEG methacrylates using a free radical reaction initiated by UV light at 254 nm. The grafting process is monitored in real time, and characteristics such as thickness, homogeneity, relative composition, photostability, and performance in terms of protein resistance in complex biofluids and sensor qualities are investigated with null ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and surface plasmon resonance. The matrix is subsequently modified to contain carboxyl groups, thereby making it possible to immobilize ligands in a controlled and functional manner. Human serum albumin and fibrinogen are immobilized and successfully detected by antibody recognition using surface plasmon resonance. The results are encouraging and suggest that the PEG matrix is suitable for biochip and biosensor applications in demanding biofluids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 8, no 1, 287-295 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14606DOI: 10.1021/bm060685gOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14606DiVA: diva2:24000
Available from: 2007-10-12 Created: 2007-10-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Biochip design based on tailored ethylene glycols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biochip design based on tailored ethylene glycols
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Studies of biomolecular interactions are of interest for several reasons. Beside basic research, the knowledge gained from such studies is also very valuable in for example drug target identification. Medical care is another area where biomolecules may be used as biomarkers to aid physicians in making correct diagnosis. In addition, the highly specific interactions between antibodies and almost any substance opens up the possibilities to design systems for detection of trace amounts of both biological and non-biological substances within environmental restoration, law enforcement, correctional care, customs service and national security. A biochip, which contains a biologically active material, offers a means of monitoring the molecular interactions in the above applications in a sensitive and specific manner. The biochip is a key component of a biosensor, which also includes components for transforming the interaction events into a human-readable signal.

This thesis describes the use of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in biochip design. Two different approaches are presented, the first based on ethylene glycol (EG)-containing alkyl thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on flat gold and the second on photo-induced graft copolymerisation of PEG-containing methacrylate monomers onto various substrates. The former is a two dimensional system where EG-terminated thiols are mixed with similar thiols presenting tail groups that mimic the explosive substance 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). In an immunoassay, the detection limit for TNT was determined to fall in the range 1-10 µg/L. In the second approach, a branched three dimensional biosensor matrix (hydrogel) is proposed. The carboxymethylated (CM) dextran matrix, which is commonly used within the biosensing community, is not always ideal for studies of biointeractions, due to the non-specific binding frequently encountered in work with complex biological solutions and various proteins. To employ PEG, which displays a low non-specific binding of such species, is therefore an interesting option worth investigating. The use of a branched graft polymerised PEG matrix in biosensor applications is novel as compared to previous reports which have focused on linear PEG chains. The latter approach provides, at maximum, one functional group, per surface anchoring point, for immobilisation of sensor elements. Thus, it has the inherited disadvantage that it limits the number of available immobilisation sites. The present PEG matrix contains a large number of functional groups, for immobilisation of sensor elements, per grafting site and offers the potential of improved response upon binding to the analyte as demonstrated in a series of successful sensor experiments.

Furthermore, the nature of the process enables easy preparation of matrix patterns and gradients. In a PEG matrix gradient, protein permeability is studied and the capabilities of immobilising proteins are demonstrated. By combining the patterning technique with different monomers in a two-step process, an inert platform, lacking chemical attachment sites, is provided with arrays of spots (with immobilisation capabilities), which are conveniently addressed via microdispensing and used for biosensor purposes. The EG-terminated thiols present another means of generating such inert platforms, a route which is also investigated. To further explore the sensor quality of these spots, the concepts of patterning and gradient formation are combined and studied.

Abstract [sv]

Det är intressant att studera biomolekylära interaktioner av många anledningar. För att kunna bedriva framgångsrik läkemedelsutveckling är det oerhört viktigt att känna till hur olika molekyler samverkar i människokroppen. Inom sjukvården kan biomolekyler användas som biomarkörer, då närvaro av dem eller förändringar av deras koncentrationer är kopplade till sjukdomstillstånd, och därmed hjälper läkaren att ställa rätt diagnos. Dessutom kan de mycket specifika interaktionerna mellan antikroppar och (i princip) valfri substans användas för detektion av spårämnen vid miljösaneringsarbete, gränskontroller, polisarbete, fängelser och arbete med nationell säkerhet.

Den här avhandlingen beskriver hur polymeren polyetylenglykol (PEG) kan användas vid design av biochip. Ett biochip är en liten anordning, som kan användas för att detektera specifika molekyler med hjälp av en biologisk interaktion. Traditionellt har PEG använts inom biomaterialsektorn, men återfinns även i hygienartiklar som tvål och tandkräm. Ett annat användningsområde är konservering av bärgade träskepp och i en del litiumjonbatterier ingår PEG som en komponent. Dessutom pågår utveckling av PEG-innehållande skyddsvästar. I det här arbetet används PEG framför allt på grund av sin förmåga att minimera ospecifik inbindning av proteiner, som utgör en stor del av gruppen biomolekyler, till ytor på biochip. Två olika typer av ytbeläggningar, som innehåller den här polymeren, har använts. Den första typen ger mycket tunna (~0.000003 mm), tvådimensionella filmer medan den andra ger en något tjockare (~0.00005 mm), tredimensionell struktur (matris). De tvådimensionella filmerna har använts för att utveckla en sprängämnesdetektor med mycket hög känslighet (detektionsgräns mellan 1-10 ppb). En viktig beståndsdel i detta system är antikroppar riktade mot sprängämnet trinitrotoluen (TNT). Den tredimensionella matrisen är mer generell och kan användas för att studera många olika molekylära interaktioner. Tillverkningsmetoden av matrisen är baserad på belysning med ultraviolett ljus och är därmed lämpad för att skapa mönstrade ytor. Genom att blockera delar av ljusflödet begränsas tillväxten av matrisen till de belysta delarna. På så sätt har bland annat så kallade mikro-arrayer, bestående av mikrometerstora (tusendels millimeter) strukturer i ett regelbundet mönster, tillverkats. Tekniken tillåter även tillverkning av gradienter, där matrisens tjocklek varierar längs med provet, genom att belysa olika delar av provytan olika länge. Genom att undersöka dessa gradienter har information om matrisens genomsläpplighet för proteiner kunnat extraheras. Gradientkonceptet har även kombinerats med mikro-arraytillverkningen och gett möjlighet att studera interaktioner mellan flera olika modellproteiner och deras motsvarande antikroppar i olika tjocka matriser på en och samma yta.

Det finns ett stort antal sätt att utnyttja interaktionerna mellan olika molekyler på ett biochip. Ett tilltalande tillvägagångssätt är exempelvis att i en mikro-array binda in olika molekyler som kan fånga kliniskt intressanta biomolekyler, i syfte att skapa en hälsoprofil. Ett sådant biochip skulle ge möjlighet att parallellt detektera eller bestämma koncentrationen av ett stort antal biomolekyler i till exempel en droppe blod. På så sätt kan en diagnos snabbt ställas, kanske till och med utan att patienten behöver uppsöka sjukvården. Den utvecklade PEG-matrisen har god potential att fungera i en sådan applikation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1111
Keyword
Biosensor, biochip, poly(ethylene glycol), self-assembled monolayer, photopolymerisation, microarray, biomolecular interaction, explosives detection
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-9578 (URN)978-91-85831-54-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-13, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-12 Created: 2007-10-12 Last updated: 2015-10-13
2. Hydrogel coatings for biomedical and biofouling applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogel coatings for biomedical and biofouling applications
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many applications share a substantial and yet unmet need for prediction and control of interactions between surfaces and proteins or living cells. Examples are blood-contacting biomaterials, biosensors, and non-toxic anti-biofouling coatings for ship hulls. The main focus of this thesis work has been the synthesis, characterization and properties of a group of coatings, designed for such applications. Many types of substrates, particularly plastics, were coated directly with ultrathin, hydrophilic polymer coatings, using a newly developed polymerization method initiated by short-wavelength ultraviolet light.

The thesis contains eight papers and an introduction aimed to provide a context for the research work. The common theme, discussed and analyzed throughout the work, has been the minimization of non-specific binding of proteins to surfaces, thereby limiting the risk of uncontrolled attachment of cells and higher organisms. This has mainly been accomplished through the incorporation of monomer units bearing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains in the coatings. Such PEG-containing “protein resistant” coatings have been used in this work as matrices for biosensor applications, as blood-contacting inert surfaces and as antibiofouling coatings for marine applications, with excellent results. The properties of the coatings, and their interactions with proteins and cells, have been thoroughly characterized using an array of techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflectometry. In addition, other routes to fabricate coatings with high protein resistance have also been utilized. For instance, the versatility of the fabrication method has enabled the design of gradients with varying electrostatic charge, affecting the protein adsorption and leading to protein resistance in areas where the charges are balanced.

This thesis also describes a novel application of imaging surface plasmon resonance for the investigation of the surface exploration behavior of marine biofouling organisms, in particular barnacle larvae. This technique allows for real-time assessment of the rate of surface exploration and the deposition of protein-based adhesives onto surfaces, a process which was previously very difficult to investigate experimentally. In this thesis, the method was applied to several model surface chemistries, including the hydrogels described above. The new method promises to provide insights into the interactions between biofouling organisms and a surface during the critical stages prior to permanent settlement, hopefully facilitating the development of antibiofouling coatings for marine applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010. 74 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1302
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54304 (URN)978-91-7393-435-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-03-19, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 00:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-03-08 Created: 2010-03-08 Last updated: 2017-01-11Bibliographically approved

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Larsson (Kaiser), AndréasEkblad, TobiasAndersson, OlofLiedberg, Bo

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