liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Development and evaluation of a comprehensive screening for orofacial dysfunction.
Köpenhamns Universitet.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2208-0630
Göteborg University.
Show others and affiliations
2007 (English)In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, no 2, 75-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim was to develop a comprehensive screening instrument for evaluation of orofacial dysfunction that was easy to perform for different health professionals without special equipment. The Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening (NOT-S), consisting of a structured interview and clinical examination, was developed with a picture manual illustrating the different tasks in the examination. It was first tested in a Swedish version, and later translated to other Nordic languages, and to English.

         The interview reflected six domains, (I) Sensory function, (II) Breathing, (III) Habits, (IV) Chewing and swallowing, (V) Drooling, and (VI) Dryness of the mouth, and the examination included six domains representing (1) The face at rest, and tasks regarding (2) Nose breathing, (3) Facial expression, (4) Masticatory muscle and jaw function, (5) Oral motor function, and (6) Speech. One or more “yes” for impairment in a domain resulted in one point (maximum NOT-S score 12 points).

         The mean NOT-S score (±SD) in 120 patients (3-86 yr), referred to five centers for specialized dental care or speech and language pathology in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, was 4.1±2.6, and 0.4±0.6 in 60 control subjects (3-78 yr). The screening was easy to administer and the time spent 5-13 min. The scores from the clinic-referred sample differed significantly from the controls, and the sensitivity of the screening was 0.96 and specificity 0.63. Repeated evaluations of videotapes of 20 patients by 3 examiners, speech-language pathologists and dentists, with at least two-week intervals, showed inter- and intraexaminer agreement on the points given in the domains at respectively 83% and 92-95% which increased after recalibration to 85% and 95-99%. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement on the NOT-S scores were 0.42-0.44 (i.e. fair), and the method error was 5.3%. To conclude, NOT-S gave a reliable and valid screening for orofacial dysfunction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 31, no 2, 75-84 p.
Keyword [en]
Oral disability - Screening - Speech - Mastication - Swallowing.
National Category
Otorhinolaryngology Dentistry
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21812OAI: diva2:241774
Available from: 2009-10-05 Created: 2009-10-05 Last updated: 2015-09-22

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(7655 kB)813 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 7655 kBChecksum SHA-512
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Link to Journal

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
McAllister, Anita
By organisation
Speech and Language Pathology Faculty of Health SciencesDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 813 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 378 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link