Policy and monitoring aspects on avoided deforestation: Towards a post 2012 climate regime
2008 (English)Report (Refereed)
Tropical deforestation is the second leading cause of greenhouse gas emissions, after energyproduction, and is responsible for about 20-25 percent of all emissions. Proximate drivers todeforestation and forest degradation are agricultural expansion, wood extraction and infrastructure development. Quantifying green house gas emissions averted from reduced deforestation requires measurements of changes in forest cover and associated changes in carbon stocks. The uncertainties in emissions from deforestation remain large but have improved over the last years through the use of satellite remote sensing. Avoided deforestation – the idea that governments and forest owners are paid to prevent deforestation that would otherwise occur has become a key policy issue in the climate change negotiations. At the 11th Conference of the Parties several calls were expressed for inclusion of forests under Kyoto’s trading instruments.The Convention decided to evaluate the issue until the 13th Conference of the Parties in Bali, December 2007. The Convention has been engaged in intensive discussions about an instrument for reducing emissions from deforestation in a second commitment period post 2012. Parties andaccredited observers were invited at two occasions to submit there views on this issue. A numberof methodological issues have been addressed, including setting a baseline level and considering issues such as permanence and leakage. In 2007 there appears to be an emerging consensus among delegates and negotiators that a mixed approach may be required i.e. between a market based approach and non-market based approach. All proposals have been an important input topolicy-makers and delegates. There are substantial costs included to finance an avoided deforestation scheme; however these are over-bridged by the large mitigation potential resulting from reducing emissions from forest conservation at low costs. Developing countries that voluntarily joins an avoided deforestation compensation scheme can expect additional income ifthe policy schemes are developed appropriately. If necessary emission reductions of green house gases from deforestation are to be achieved without compromising prospects for economic and social development, compensation schemes have to be well-targeted, robust and benefit local communities. Developed countries can also support developing countries with technology transfer and capacity building in order to construct these avoided deforestation mechanisms. InBali, delegates finally agreed to include emissions from tropical deforestation in the United Nations Framework on Climate Change and future climate change negotiations. Now, as part ofthe two-year Bali Action Plan, work is to begin to widen the discussion further in order to decide upon a sound compensation scheme at the 15th Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen 2009.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norrköping: Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research , 2008. , 39 p.
CSPR Report, ISSN 1654-1529 ; 08:01
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21915ISBN: 978-91-7393-917-1OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-21915DiVA: diva2:242001