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Visualizing the Electric Field in Electrolytes Using Electrochromism from a Conjugated Polymer
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2773-5096
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
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2005 (English)In: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 8, no 2, H12-H16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic polymer films, employed as display elements, smart windows, and the base material for electrochemical electronic devices, can be addressed solely through ionic transport via an electrolyte, without direct electronic connection as typically employed in the above examples. We present a demonstration of induced electrochromism to quantify the direction and magnitude of the electric field in an electrolyte using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene-sulfonate. After further development, this simple yet effective technique will be potentially applicable for optimizing batteries and fuel cells, as the active detection element in electrochemical sensors and as a detector in ionic separation in electrolytes (electrophoresis).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Electrochemical Society , 2005. Vol. 8, no 2, H12-H16 p.
Keyword [en]
conducting polymers, electrolytes, electric fields, electrochromism, polymer films
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14681DOI: 10.1149/1.1843751OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14681DiVA: diva2:24245
Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-11-12 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Electrolyte: Semiconductor Combinations for Organic Electronic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrolyte: Semiconductor Combinations for Organic Electronic Devices
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The discovery of semi-conducting organic materials has opened new possibilities for electronic devices and systems because of their solution processibility, lightweight and flexibility compared to inorganic semiconductors. The combination of semiconductors with electrolytes, and more especially organic semiconductors and solid electrolytes has attracted the attention of researchers because of the multiple phenomena originating from the simultaneous motion of electrons and ions.

This thesis deals with organic-based devices whose working mechanism involves electrolytes. By measuring electrochromism induced by the field in isolated segments of conjugated polymer films, which is in contact with an electrolyte, the direction and the magnitude of the electric field along an electrolyte is quantified (paper I). In addition, using a polyanionic proton conductor in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) as gate dielectric results in low operation voltage and fast response thanks to the high capacitance of the electric double layer (EDLC) that is formed at organic semiconductor/ polyelectrolyte interface (paper III). Because an electrolyte is used as a gate insulator, the effect of the ionic currents on the performance of an EDLC-OFET has been investigated by varying the relative humidity of the device ambience (paper IV). Since the EDLC-OFET and the electrochromic display cell both are operated at low voltages, the transistor has been monolithically integrated with an electrochromic pixel, i.e. combining a solid state device and an electrochemical device (paper V). Further, a theoretical study of the electrostatic potential within a so called pen-heterojunction made up of two semi-infinite, doped semiconductor media separated by an electrolyte region is reported (paper II).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009. 58 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1228
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15775 (URN)978-91-7393-735-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-01-09, TP2, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-12-03 Created: 2008-12-03 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
2. Electrolyte-Based Organic Electronic Devices
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrolyte-Based Organic Electronic Devices
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The discovery of semi-conducting and conducting organic materials has opened new possibilities for electronic devices and systems. Applications, previously unattainable for conventional electronics, have become possible thanks to the development of conjugated polymers. Conjugated polymers that are both ion- and electron conducting, allow for electrochemical doping and de-doping via reversible processes as long as both forms of conduction remain available. Doping causes rearrangement of the -system along the polymer backbone, and creates new states in the optical band gap, resulting in an increased electronic conductivity and also control of the color (electrochromism). Doping can also occur by charge injection at a metal – semiconducting polymer interface. Electrochemical electronic devices and solid state devices based on these two types of doping are now beginning to enter the market.

This thesis deals with organic based-devices whose working mechanism involves electrolytes. After describing the properties of conjugated polymers, fundamentals on electrolytes (ionic conductivity, types, electric double layer and the electric field distribution) are briefly presented. Thereafter, a short review of the field of organic field effect transistors as well as a description of transistors that are gated via an electrolyte will be reviewed.

Paper I present a novel technique to visualize the electric field within a two-dimensional electrolyte by applying the electrolyte over an array of electronically isolated islands of electrochromic polymer material on a plastic foil. By observing the color change within each polymer island the direction and the magnitude of the electric field can be measured. This technology has applications in electrolyte evaluation and is also applicable in bio-analytical measurements, including electrophoresis. The focus of paper II lies on gating an organic field effect transistor (OFET) by a polyanionic proton conductor. The large capacitance of the electric double layer (EDL) that is formed at organic semiconductor/polyelectrolyte upon applying a potential to the gate, results in low operation voltages and fast response. This type of transistor that is gated via electric double layer capacitor is called EDLC-OFET. Because an electrolyte is used as a gate insulator, the role of the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte is considered in paper III. The effect on the electronic performance of the transistor is studied as well by varying the humidity level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, 2007. 38 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1330
Keyword
Conjugated polymers, Electrolytes, Organic Field Effect Transistors
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-9955 (URN)978-91-85895-90-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-09-28, TP2, Täppan, Campus Norrköping, Linköpings universitet, Norrköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-10-12 Created: 2007-10-12 Last updated: 2017-02-03

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Said, EliasRobinson, Nathaniel D.Nilsson, DavidSvensson, Per-OlofBerggren, Magnus

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