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Optimisation and co-operative perspectives on industrial energy systems
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increased global competition and growing environmental concerns around the world are two major trends affecting companies today. Tougher competition has led companies to focus primarily on their core business activities, which may lead to a shortage of resources for support activities, such as energy management. This development takes place while environmental concerns step up requirements regarding companies' environmental performance, with global warming at the forefront. Together these issues have increased the management complexity and thus the need for relevant decision support. The purpose of this thesis is to study ways to reach a more comprehensive view of industrial energy systems than is the case today, and thereby achieve more efficient systems.

One theme in this thesis is to investigate analysis approaches, mainly based on optimisation, that can help to produce a comprehensive view of industrial energy systems. The subject of the studies was an integrated steel plant in Sweden which has a connected CHP plant that uses the excess process gases from the steel plant as fuel. The studies included analyses of the operation planning during both internal process variations and changed external conditions. They also included analyses of relations between objectives such as cost, energy use, and environmental performance by applying a multi-objective approach. The analyses proved to provide a comprehensive view of how the system reacts to various changes, which factors are the essential ones for different objectives, and what trade-offs can be made between the objectives.

In addition to this, two studies were conducted of energy-related co-operations between companies. The first looked at co-operation where energy service companies bring competence and other resources related to energy efficiency to the pulp and paper industry. The main aspects of concern were: the managers' views on the opportunities and risks with energy-related co-operation; and its implications for industrial energy management. The second study investigated co-operation between process industries and municipal energy companies with regard to indus trial waste heat deliveries and jointly owned combined heat and power plants. The study emphasised incentives for and barriers to this kind of co-operation. In both studies it was found that trust between the parties is important, that the form of the contract is also important especially to bring the focus to bear on common benefits rather than just one's own, and to reduce the risks involved in co-operation.

Based on the performed studies possible implications of decision support based on optimisation and co-operation between companies are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2004. , 98 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 913
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22683Local ID: 1974ISBN: 91-85295-95-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-22683DiVA: diva2:242996
Public defence
2004-12-02, Sal C3, Hus C, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2013-01-21
List of papers
1. Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial energy efficiency: the need for investment decision support from a manager perspective
2003 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 31, no 15, 1623-1634 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global competition, commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and a deregulated, integrated European electricity market will in all probability increase the demand for energy efficiency on the part of companies in Sweden. Investment decisions are an important part of meeting the new demands, because they decide the future efficiency of industrial energy systems. The objective of this study is to investigate, from a managerial perspective, the need to improve decision support in some industries, which can help to facilitate and improve investment decisions concerning energy efficiency. This work has been conducted through in-depth interviews with representatives for a number of energy-intensive companies and non-energy-intensive companies from different sectors. One need that was identified was the improvement of working methods in order to support the decision-making process. Here, external players seem to be playing an increasingly important role. Access to correct information, better follow-up activities, and transparent, understandable calculations are also considered to be important. The study will form the foundation for subsequent work on decision support and energy efficiency in industry.

Keyword
Decision support, Energy efficiency, Industry, Investments
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46400 (URN)10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00228-8 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Collaborative energy partnerships in relation to development of core business focus and competence: a study of Swedish pulp and paper companies and energy service companies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative energy partnerships in relation to development of core business focus and competence: a study of Swedish pulp and paper companies and energy service companies
2004 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 13, no 2, 78-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several aspects of the growing market for energy-related collaboration between pulp and paper industries (PPIs) and energy service companies (ESCOs) in Sweden were investigated through in-depth interviews with PPI and ESCO managers. Aspects of concern are the different forms of co-operation established, the managers' views on the recent changes made regarding competence and business focus, the managers' views on the opportunities and risks with energy related co-operation and the implications for sustainable industrial energy management. The study shows that there is a mutual belief among PPI and ESCO managers that co-operation can provide opportunities for improved competitiveness through a more rational distribution of competences between companies. The main two barriers against the utilization of this potential are that ESCOs must prove that they can bring added values other than capital to pulp and paper mills, and the lack of competition between external energy service providers. Furthermore, we argue that adding aspects related to competence and inter-firm partnering can improve the existing theory surrounding barriers and opportunities for sustainable industrial energy management in manufacturing industries.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-45803 (URN)10.1002/bse.396 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
3. Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden
2006 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 34, no 13, 1508-1519 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating networks can technically enable energy-related co-operations between energy-intensive industries and municipal energy companies. The most common form of co-operation is to utilise industrial waste heat as the primary energy source in district heating networks. However, another type of co-operation is to jointly own a plant that produces both process steam for the industry and hot water for district heating. In this article, eight Swedish energy co-operations are studied and the main focus is on the process leading to co-operations of this kind. Different aspects of factors that facilitate or obstruct the start up and continuous daily operation of a co-operation are discussed. The main conclusion is that while the primary reasons for the foundation of such co-operations are favourable techno-economic factors, this is not enough for a co-operation to emerge. This study highlights the importance of people with a real ambition to co-operate in both parties in the co-operations.

Keyword
Co-operation, District heating, Waste heat utilisation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50151 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2004.11.001 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
4. System gains from widening the system boundaries: analysis of the material and energy balance during renovation of a coke oven battery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System gains from widening the system boundaries: analysis of the material and energy balance during renovation of a coke oven battery
Show others...
2004 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 28, no 12, 1051-1064 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The coke oven plant has a central role in the iron and steel making process in an integrated steel plant. The subject of this research is to study how the production and energy system at the steel industry, with a connected combined heat and power plant, is affected by renovation of the coke oven. The aim is to investigate the interaction between the different processes and how the choice of system boundary affects the operation practice for the steel plant. MILP-based optimization models have been developed and used for the evaluation. The analysis shows that it is very important to take the interactions between the different production units in the system into consideration when making the analysis. A system optimization with a boundary including the whole system has a greater potential for minimizing the total system cost than one that only includes the processes where the actual changes are made. Conclusions are also drawn regarding the production practice for the specific system.

Keyword
Coke oven, Energy efficiency, Optimization, Steel industry, System boundaries
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-45605 (URN)10.1002/er.1013 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
5. Analysing the influence of variations when optimising the energy and material system for an integrated steel plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing the influence of variations when optimising the energy and material system for an integrated steel plant
2003 (English)In: Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion : FTEC 2003, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Analyses of industrial material and energy systems are often based on average estimates of process behaviour. In this paper an analysis of the main variations in the gas network at an integrated steel plant is presented. An analysis is presented of how these variations affect the objective value, when optimisations are made for the production system in a developed process integration model for the steel plant. A method combining fourier analysis for finding dynamic variations, and factorial design to investigate the critical variation dynamic, is proved to be powerful for analysing and quantifying the variations and their impact on the system. It is not possible to change operation practices to adapt to these frequent variations, instead a strategy is suggested to find a stable operating practice that takes into account the most influential variations.

Series
FTEC 2003, ISSN 0854-9346
Keyword
energy system, variation, steel plant and optimising
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87664 (URN)
Conference
International Conference on Fluid and Thermal Energy Conversion, Bali, Indonesia, December 7-11, 2003
Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2013-01-21
6. In search of stability: investigating flexible and stable production strategies for an optimised steel plant
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In search of stability: investigating flexible and stable production strategies for an optimised steel plant
Show others...
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steemaking, Scanmet II., 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is crucial for a steel making production system to operate at the lowest possible production cost, while satisfying stability and reliability conditions. To plan future production strategies, it is therefore important to be able to model the system behaviour when internal and external parameters are changed. In this study the sensitivity and stability of an optimised solution, of an integrated steel plant, have been investigated. The solution’s sensitivity has been analysed taking both internal process changes and external price variations into account, through applying both simulation and optimisation. The analysis also includes both costs and environmental issues such as carbon dioxide and sulphur emissions. Based on the methodology suggested, it is possible to determine the stability of the system solution, including both economic and environmental performance.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87665 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Process Development in Iron and Steemaking, Scanmet II. June 6-9 2004, Luleå, Sweden
Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2013-01-21
7. Analysing the costs, energy use and environmental performance of an integrated steel plant by applying a multi-objective approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing the costs, energy use and environmental performance of an integrated steel plant by applying a multi-objective approach
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial decision-making is often of a multi-objective character and has become even more so in recent years as environmental issues have become more important. The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationships between different criteria by applying a multi-objective approach when optimising an integrated steel plant with a connected combined heat and power plant. Based on this analysis, the endeavour is to create a better foundation for strategic decision-making, with regard to both operation practice and investment strategy. The system is modelled with a tool that uses mixed integer linear programming, where both single and multi-objective optimisations have been performed. For the multi-objective approach, the ε-constraint method is used and the results are presented by creating pareto optimal fronts to make it easier to overview the solutions. The results show that the applied methodology is useful for facilitating the work of both determining which factors are the crucial ones for the different objectives and analysing how the objectives affect each other.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87670 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2013-01-21
8. The MIND method: a decision support system based on MILP
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The MIND method: a decision support system based on MILP
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an overview of the MIND method (Method for analysis of INDustrial energy systems), which is based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) and developed at Linköping Institute of Technology in Sweden. Initially, the method focused on cost-optimization of industrial energy systems, but through development broader analyses has been enabled including for example the possibility to use a multi-objective approach. Several industries, ranging from the food industry to the pulp and paper industry, have hitherto been modeled and analyzed using the MIND method.

Keyword
energy efficiency, decision-making, MILP, optimization, industrial energy system, Java, MIND method, reMIND
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87671 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-21 Created: 2013-01-21 Last updated: 2013-01-21

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