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Code-switching for all practical purposes: Bilingual organization of children's play
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2314-4942
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study examines bilingual children's code-switching practices as they occur in multiparty play activities in an English school in Sweden. By focusing on the endogenous organization of play events, the study contributes to our understanding of bilingualism as both resource for and result of children's social conduct. The central questions are: what is the role of bilingual practices in children's mundane reflexive production of social order, and, specifically, what sort of interactional work may be accomplished through code-switching?

Interpretive analyses of naturally occurring play episodes were conducted, broadly along the lines of interaction and conversation analytic research. The empirical data comprise over 20 hours of audio- and video-recorded play, taking place during recess. The analyses draw upon previous work on language alternation, which focuses on members' procedures for accomplishing locally meaningful interaction in bilingual conversation (Auer, 1984; Gumperz, 1982).

The results are reported in four empirical studies, highlighting the following features: The children did not make use of a specialized play language. Rather, both English and Swedish were commonly spoken during recess activities. Further, the children's choice of language was locally sensitive and guided by a general preference for same language talk. In light of this preference, the linguistic contrast arising with code-switching served to contextualize children's actions. More specifically, the empirical studies demonstrate (i) how code-switching may be used to facilitate children's entry into ongoing play; (ii) how it may serve to bring about a shift in conversational footing; (iii) to highlight the oppositional nature of certain actions within dispute exchanges, and finally, (iv) to enhance, in certain sequential locations, children's competitive bids for the conversational floor.

The present approach diverges from the monolingual perspective traditionally adopted in research on bilingualism, as well as the commonplace conceptualization of bilingualism as, above all, an aspect of the individual mind. Instead, bilingualism is viewed as a set of contingent practices within joint activities in play. Thus, the present study highlights the socially distributed nature of bilingualism, managed and accomplished within interactional exchanges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2000. , 131 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 223
Keyword [en]
Childhood bilingualism; Code-switching; Play dialogues; Social interaction
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24373Local ID: 6465ISBN: 91-7219-883-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-24373DiVA: diva2:244691
Public defence
2000-12-15, Sal Key 1, Hus Key, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Can I be with?: Negotiating play entry in a bilingual school
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can I be with?: Negotiating play entry in a bilingual school
2001 (English)In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, Vol. 33, no 4, 515-543 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines children's procedures for entering play activities in a bilingual school context. While most previous research has focused on individual `access strategies' and their outcomes for peer group participation, the present study argues for a dialogic approach, particularly stressing the collaborative work involved in such interactions. In-depth analyses of entry episodes highlight a number of interactive resources, some of them closely related to the bilingual setting. These resources are discussed in terms of their local anchoring in the discourse structure, as well as in terms of participants' orientations to their functions. On this view, bilingualism is cast as a socially distributed phenomenon, managed in the local organization of play entry negotiations.

Keyword
Social interaction, Conversation analysis, Bilingualism, Children's play
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22879 (URN)10.1016/S0378-2166(99)00131-9 (DOI)2220 (Local ID)2220 (Archive number)2220 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
2. Footing in bilingual play
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Footing in bilingual play
2000 (English)In: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 4, no 3, 435-457 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Goffman's classic paper (1979), bilingual code-switching was seen as a prototypical device for accomplishing shifts in footing. Yet his work has not informed research on code-switching to any great extent. The present study of primary school children's play interaction in an English-Swedish school setting combines a sequential approach to code-switching with an analysis of footing (cf. Auer 1984), extending prior work in showing that code-switches often involve subtle shifts of footing, both in terms of production formats and participation frameworks. Code-switches were employed as important rhetorical and dramaturgic play devices, e.g. when contextualizing changes of addressee and shifts of frame (e.g. serious, nonserious). In contrast to earlier, often speaker-centered work, reception is discussed in-depth in the present analyses, and it is shown that footings are truly interactional achievements.

Keyword
Bilingualism, Code-switching, Footing, Play dialogues
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22877 (URN)10.1111/1467-9481.00123 (DOI)2218 (Local ID)2218 (Archive number)2218 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
3. Building bilingual oppositions: Code-switching in children's disputes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building bilingual oppositions: Code-switching in children's disputes
2004 (English)In: Language in society (London. Print), ISSN 0047-4045, E-ISSN 1469-8013, Vol. 33, no 1, 33-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates children's procedures for constructing oppositional stances in argumentative exchanges. While most previous research on children's arguments entails a monolingual bias, the present analysis focuses on bilingual practices of code-switching in disputes emerging during play activities. Drawing on more than ten hours of video-taped play interaction in a bilingual school setting, it is shown how the language contrast arising through code-switching displays and highlights the affective intensity of oppositional stances. Sequential analyses show how code-switching works to escalate social opposition, often to the peak of an argument, resulting in subsequent backdown or full termination of the dispute. Moreover, in certain participant constellations code-switching may be used to constrain opponents' opportunities to engage in further adversative interaction. Finally, it is argued that an approach to play discourse concerned with children's methods for accomplishing accountable actions allows for a view of bilingualism as socially distributed, that is, as an emergent and interactionally managed feature of discourse. (Bilingualism, child disputes, code-switching, social interaction)*.

Keyword
bilingualism, child disputes, code-switching, social interaction
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46304 (URN)10.1017/S0047404504031021 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
4. Overlap in Bilingual Play: Some Implications of Code-Switching for Overlap Resolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overlap in Bilingual Play: Some Implications of Code-Switching for Overlap Resolution
2001 (English)In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 34, no 4, 421-451 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper examines children's procedures for dealing with simultaneous bilingual speech as it anses in multiparty play episodes. Sequential analyses of more than 10 hr of videorecorded recess activities at an English school in Sweden revealed that children use an array of methods to minimize the overlapping passage. Erceptions to tins may be found in exchanges that are demonstrably competitive with regard to turn taking, in which participants' actions strive to gain exclusive rights to the floor, often resulting in stretched overlaps. Moreover, the sequential location of bilingual overlap onset proved relevant for its resolution: Whereas in onset paticipants would use different methods to deal with simultaneity, resulting in various outcomes of overlap negotiation, instances of overlapping turn baginnings occasioned by multiple self-selection were always resolved the same way, with the speaker diverging from the language of previous turns(s) keeping the floor. It is therefore suggested that the linguistic contrast arising with the code-switch may enhance second speakers' chances to acquire the floor and that the effectiveness of this "turn security device" is strongly dependent on its sequential placement.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34392 (URN)10.1207/S15327973RLSI3404_02 (DOI)21400 (Local ID)21400 (Archive number)21400 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved

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