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Characterization of the interface dipole at the paraphenylenediamine-nickel interface: A joint theoretical and experimental study
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 122, no 8, 84712- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In organic-based (opto)electronic devices, charge injection into conjugated materials is governed to a large extent by the metal-organic interface dipole. Controlling the injection of charges requires a better understanding of the fundamental origin of the interface dipole. In this context, photoelectron spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the interaction between para-phenylenediamine (PPDA), an electron donor, and a polycrystalline nickel surface. The interface dipole formed upon chemisorption of one PPDA monolayer strongly modifies the work function of the nickel surface from 5.10 to 3.55 eV. The work function decrease of 1.55 eV is explained by the electron-donor character of PPDA and the modification of the electronic density at the metal surface. PPDA monolayers are composed of tilted molecules interacting via the nitrogen lone-pair and PPDA molecules chemisorbed parallel to the surface via their π-electron density. Annealing the monolayer leads to dehydrogenation of PPDA activated by the nickel surface, as found for other amines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 122, no 8, 84712- p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24542DOI: 10.1063/1.1851507Local ID: 6701OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-24542DiVA: diva2:244863
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-02-03
In thesis
1. Interface Engineering in Organic Electronics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interface Engineering in Organic Electronics
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Organic electronics is a field covering all applications and devices where one or several of the active components are made of organic material, such as organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, organic thin film transistors, organic magnets for spintronics etc. In all of the applications mentioned above, transport of charges across both inorganic/organic and organic/organic interfaces play a key role for device performance. In order to achieve high efficiencies and longer life-times, proper matching of the electronic energy levels of the different materials is needed.

The aim of the research presented in this thesis has been to explore different routes to optimize interface energetics and gain deeper knowledge of the mechanisms that govern charge transport over the interface. Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is a method well suited to study both interactions between different materials taking place at surfaces as well as interface energetics.

One way to achieve proper matching of interfaces energy levels is by adding a dipole layer. In the three first papers presented in the thesis, the method of adding a monolayer of small organic molecules to change the work function of the surface is investigated. We start with a model system consisting of a nickel surface and PPDA molecules where we have strong interaction and mixing of orbitals between the molecule and the metal surface. The second system consists of a gold surface and TDAE molecules with weaker interaction with integer electron transfer and finally in the third paper an organic surface VPP-PEDOT-Tos is modified, with TDAE, to create a transparent low work function organic electrode. In the fourth paper, we focus on gaining deeper understanding of the Integer Charge Transfer (ICT) model and the mechanisms governing the alignment of energy levels at organic/(in)organic interfaces and in the fifth paper we continue to challenge this model by using it to predict the behavior of a bilayer device, in terms of energy level alignment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011. 38 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1411
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72236 (URN)978-91-7393-018-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-12-14, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-11-23 Created: 2011-11-23 Last updated: 2013-09-12Bibliographically approved

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Lindell, Lindade Jong, Michel POsikowicz, WojciechBerggren, MagnusSalaneck, William RCrispin, Xavier

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