This thesis deals with non-invasive monitoring techniques for haemodialysis. Three applications in particular have been investigated: Blood pressure measurements in the extra corporal circuit, the relationship between UV measurements and dialysate urea concentration and photoplethysmography (PPG) in haemodialysis patients.
A non-invasive pressure sensor as an integrated part of the extracorporeal tube circuit was developed using modified cross-section tube geometry. The expansions of the modified tubes with different cross-sectional geometries were studied upon application of pressure, both experimentally and numerically, using the finite element method. Factorial design was used to study the relationship between pressure in the tube and force needed to restore the expanding tube to its original dimension. This investigation was performed for different tube cross-sectional geometries. A pressure sensor was designed, based on the previously obtained findings. The evaluation of the pressure sensor showed that the output corresponded well to applied pressure (R2=0.99).
An UV-method for studying waste products in the dialysate has recently been developed by our research group. In the present study, it was investigated how the relationship between UV-absorption and dialysate urea concentration was affected by the treatment settings, patient anamnesis and prescribed pharmaceuticals. A mathematical model was proposed which includes these effects. Multiregression analysis indicated the possibility of performing individual estimates of urea concentration from UV-absorption.
During haemodialysis, the patient's cardiovascular system is affected when excess fluid is extracted, which may result in blood pressure fluctuations. In the present study, a novel PPG method for monitoring haemodynamic changes during dialysis was investigated. The performed study indicates that PPG measurements relate to haemodynamic changes and may thus be useful in the patient monitoring. However, the relationship is complex and needs further studies.
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2002. , 45 p.
2002-05-21, Aulan, Administrationshuset, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)