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Prostate Cancer Registration in Four Swedish Regions 1996: Differences in Incidence, Age Structure and Management
Department of Surgery, Motala Hospital.
Oncological Centre, Uppsala University.
Oncological Centre, Uppsala University.
Department of Urology, Umeå Hospital.
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1999 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, E-ISSN 1651-2065, Vol. 33, no 5, 306-311 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In 1996 registration of prostate cancer in four of the six Swedish regions was started to facilitate evaluation of geographical variations in incidence and treatment.

Material and methods: For all cases of prostate cancer, personal identification number, tumour stage, tumour grade and primary treatment were registered.

Results: In the four regions covered by the register, 3541 cases of prostate cancer were registered. Altogether there were 5795 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in Sweden the same year. The age-standardized incidence varied from 89/100 000 to 169/100 000 among counties. The proportion of localized tumours correlated positively to the incidence (p < 0.05) and negatively to mean age at diagnosis (p < 0.01). There was also a significant positive correlation between the proportion of localized tumours and the percentage of patients given curative treatment. All registered variables showed large geographical variations, especially concerning percentage of T1c tumours, treatment of localized tumours and choice of palliative treatment.

Conclusion: Diagnostic activity varied considerably among counties, resulting in large variation in age-standardized incidence. High incidence is associated with a larger proportion of localized tumours, which, in turn, is associated with early age at diagnosis. In counties where a policy of detecting tumours early is practised, curative treatment is also given more often. Treatment of localized tumours and preference for palliative treatment seem to depend on local traditions. The lack of cytological and histopathological standards makes geographical comparisons based on tumour grade impossible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 33, no 5, 306-311 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25344DOI: 10.1080/003655999750017374Local ID: 9786OAI: diva2:245673
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2012-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Diagnosis, management, quality of life, and long-term survival in prostate cancer patients: A study based on national, regional, and local cancer registry data in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnosis, management, quality of life, and long-term survival in prostate cancer patients: A study based on national, regional, and local cancer registry data in Sweden
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer is a common disease with considerable variaton in clinical behaviour and therapeutic responsiveness. Uncertainty surrounds almost all aspects of prostate cancer management and it has been difficult to conduct proper randomised controlled trials required for reliable evidence-based decision-making. Although randomised controlled trials are under way and may eventually provide unbiased data on the efficacy of the management of prostate cancer in selected patient groups under optimal circumstances, population-based studies are necessary to evaluate variations in incidence and the effectiveness of management as practised in the community at large.

This study uses three prospectively assembled population-based cohorts and one cross-sectional group of men with prostate cancer:

1. a local register of all men with prostate cancer in the Central District of Östergotland 1974-1986 (n=813)

2. the South-East Region Prostate Cancer Register 1987-1996 (n=6782)

3. the National Prostate Cancer Register 1996-1997 (n=8328)

4. A cross-sectional group of all men with prostate cancer residing in Östergotland 1999 comprising patients from cohorts 1 and 2 (n=1442)

The incidence of prostate cancer in the South-East Region increased from 613 in 1987 to 780 in 1993 and then slowly declined. The age-adjusted incidence varied from 89/100 000 to 169/100 000 between the different counties included in the National Prostate Cancer Register 1996. In counties where a large percentage of the tumours were detected when still localised, the incidence was higher and the men younger at diagnosis (both p<0.05). In the age interval 50-59 years of age the median PSA was 13 ng/ml, whereas it was 35 ng/ml in those younger than 50. This difference was significant (p<0.05) and is probably explained by larger total tumour volume among men in the youngest age group. For men with well to moderately differentiated tumours and PSA < 20 ng/ml the risk for regional and distant metastases was below 10%. Between 1987 and 1996 the proportion of men treated with radical prostatectomy in the South-East Region decreased from 11% to 2.5%. During the same period the percentage of patients receiving GnRH-analogues increased from 3.9% to 37.8% while the percentage of patients treated with orchiectomy decreased from 40.0% to 12.8%. For patients treated with radiotherapy the median PSA was 16.7 ng/ml, for those who underwent radical prostatectomy 9.3 ng/ml, for patients receiving GnRH-analogues 61 ng/ml and for those treated with bilateral orchiectomy it was 88 ng/ml. All differences in PSA levels between the treatment groups were significant (p<0.05), indicating that there is a selection process with men having less advanced cancer receiving GnRH-analogues and men with more advanced cancer undergoing bilateral orchiectomy, and similarly a selection of men with smaller tumours being treated with radical prostatectomy rather than radiotherapy. Of the men answering the questionnaire sent to all prostate cancer patients residing in Ostergotland 1999 42% had perceived pain during the previous week and 26% stated their quality of life to be 50% or less on a visual analogue scale. A high health-care availability rating and short time since diagnosis were found to significantly predict lower rating of pain on average (p<0.05). Pain on average was found to be a significant predictive factor for decreased quality of life together with high age, low healthcare availability rating and palliative treatment (p<0.05). Age ≥ 70 years, advanced stage and poor differentiation were risk factors associated with increased risk for prostate cancer death in Östergotland Central District Cohort (p<0.05). The survival curve followed a continuous exponential course throughout the period of observation.

The geographical as well as temporal variations in incidence are probably explained by differences in diagnostic activity, which also affects the age at diagnosis and distribution of stages. There are also large disparities in management within the country, which reflects the lack of evidence supporting one treatment in favour of another. How diagnostic activity and different local habits in management affect outcome in the long run is still unknown, but the results of our study regarding quality of life and survival may be used as a basis for management decision-making. Patients with localised tumours have a favourable prognosis, even without initial treatment. When deciding on therapy, however, the grade of malignancy should be taken into account as it has a great influence on disease-specific survival. For men with well to moderately differentiated tumours and PSA < 20 ng/ml, further investigation to exclude distant and regional metastases is unnecessary.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2001. 94 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 664
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25708 (URN)10084 (Local ID)91-7219-765-X (ISBN)10084 (Archive number)10084 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-04-06, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-05Bibliographically approved

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