Studies on expression and regulation of phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase 2 in gastrointestinal tissues with special reference to colorectal cancer
1999 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
The phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are phospholipid hydrolyzing enzymes that in mammalian cells exist in several different isoform including cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), group I PLA2 (PLA2-I) and group II PLA2 (PLA2-ll). PLA2 is involved in production of inflammatory mediators, membrane remodelling, digestive functions and stimulation of prolifemtion. In addition. PLA2 supplies cyclooxygenase COX-1 and COX-2 with arachidonic acid for production of eicosanoids.
Increased COX-2 expression and high concentrations of prostaglandins have been found in human colorectal adenocarcinomas and in rat colonic twnours. Studies implicate that there is a link between the tumourigenic effect of the tumour suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and COX-2 up-regulation in mouse intestinal neoplasms. Mutations of the human APC gene are frequent in both sporadic and familial colorectal cancer and result in activation of p-catenin!T cell factor-4 (Tcf-4) mediated transcription of target genes which may contribute to colorectal tumourigenesis.
The ontogenic development of rat gastrointestinal PLA2-I and PLA2-II and the influence of the exogenous glucocorticoid cortisone acetate were studied. The ontogeny of rat glandular stomach PLA2-I and PLA2-II gene expression is similar and seems to follow the general postnatal development of the gastrointestinal tract PLA2-II gene expression is different in the glandular stomach compared to ileum and forestomach during the neonatal period. Administration of the cortisone acetate, during the neonatal period, induced PLA2-I and PLA2-II gene expression in glandular stomach and ileum, respectively, au effect that may be related to maturation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Gene expression of PLA2-II, cPLA2 and COX-2, protein levels of COX-2 and mutational analysis of APC were investigated in human colorectal tumours. COX-2 was dramatically up-regulated in tumours located in rectum and associated with the presence of APC mutations. Tcf-4 consensus sequences found in the COX-2 promoter were activated but APC/P-catenin/fcf-4 pathway may partly be involved in transcriptional regulation of the COX-2 gene. Neither induction of PLA2-II nor correlation in gene expression between cPLA2 and COX-2 were observed. 'These observations imply that other enzymes than PLA2 contribute to generate arachidonic acid for COX-2 mediated eicosanoid metabolism aud that PLA2-II seems to play a minor or no role in hllltlan colorectal cancer.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 1999. , 49 p.
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 610
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25638Local ID: 10012ISBN: 91-7219-564-9OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-25638DiVA: diva2:246186
1999-11-26, Kurt Johansson Aulan, Hälsohögskolan, Jönköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Papers, included in the Ph.D. thesis, are not registered and included in the posts from 1999 and backwards.2009-10-082009-10-082012-10-22Bibliographically approved