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Caveolae in insulin signalling in human and rat adipocytes
Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Cell biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The pancreatic hormone insulin is a key hormone in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis but it also exerts control on gene expression and cell growth. This thesis presents results on fhe role of caveolae in insulin signalling in human and rat adipocytes. Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane, characterised by the structural protein caveolin. Caveolae and caveolin have been implicated in a variety of functions, like uptake of molecular cargo into the cell, cholesterol transport and signal transduction. After isolation of caveolae and using electron microscopy on cell membranes, the insulin receptor was demonstrated to be localised in caveolae of human adipocytes. We also used biochemical and morphological methods to show that the glucose transporter GLUT4 was translocated to caveolae in response to insulin in rat adipocytes, indicating fhat the caveola is the locale for glucose uptake in adipocytes.

Adipocytes fhat were depleted of cholesterol using ß-cyclodextrin lacked caveolae invaginations. In cells fhus depleted of cholesterol and caveolae, fhe insulin receptor itself was not affected, but insulin signalling to metabolic control was inhibited. In rat adipocytes, insulin signalling to mitogenic control was not affected. In human fat cells, however, insulin's mitogenic signalling was dependent on caveolae/cholesterol. In contrast to other cells studied, including rat adipocytes, where the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) is mainly cytosolic, in human adipocytes IRS-1 was found in the plasma membrane and in caveolae. These results show the importance of choosing the relevant system to work with, since there are clear species differences.

We performed an analysis of the lipid composition of purified caveolae from rat adipocytes. As expected, cholesterol constitutes a major part of caveolae, but there is also an enrichment of sphingomyelin and the gangliosides GM1, GM3, GD3 and GD1a, while there is less protein, compared to the surrounding plasma membrane.

Taken together, caveolae appear as hnbs for insulin signalling. Caveolae seem necessary for fhe maintenance of metabolic signalling, like glucose uptake, and defects in caveolae may thus be the cause of insulin resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003. , 54 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 782
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25673Local ID: 10049ISBN: 91-7373-539-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-25673DiVA: diva2:246221
Public defence
2003-04-11, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-10-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cholesterol Depletion Disrupts Caveolae and Insulin Receptor Signaling for Metabolic Control via Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, but Not for Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cholesterol Depletion Disrupts Caveolae and Insulin Receptor Signaling for Metabolic Control via Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, but Not for Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Control
2001 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 276, no 13, 9670-9678 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Insulin exerts its cellular control through receptor binding in caveolae in plasmalemma of target cells (Gustavsson, J., Parpal, S., Karlsson, M., Ramsing, C., Thorn, H., Borg, M., Lindroth, M., Peterson, K. H., Magnusson, K.-E., and Strålfors, P. (1999) FASEB. J. 13, 1961–1971). We now report that a progressive cholesterol depletion of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with β-cyclodextrin gradually destroyed caveolae structures and concomitantly attenuated insulin stimulation of glucose transport, in effect making cells insulin-resistant. Insulin access to or affinity for the insulin receptor on rat adipocytes was not affected as determined by 125I-insulin binding. By immunoblotting of plasma membranes, total amount of insulin receptor and of caveolin remained unchanged. Receptor autophosphorylation in response to insulin was not affected by cholesterol depletion. Insulin treatment of isolated caveolae preparations increased autophosphorylation of receptor before and following cholesterol depletion. Insulin-increased tyrosine phosphorylation of an immediate downstream signal transducer, insulin receptor substrate-1, and activation of the further downstream protein kinase B were inhibited. In contrast, insulin signaling to mitogenic control as determined by control of the extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was not affected. Insulin did not control Shc phosphorylation, and Shc did not control extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2, whereas cholesterol depletion constitutively phosphorylated Shc. In conclusion, caveolae are critical for propagating the insulin receptor signal to downstream targets and have the potential for sorting signal transduction for metabolic and mitogenic effects.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47429 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M007454200 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
2. Insulin induces translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 to plasma membrane caveolae in adipocytes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulin induces translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4 to plasma membrane caveolae in adipocytes
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2002 (English)In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 16, no 2, 249-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue is the result of translocation of insulin-regulated glucose transporters (GLUT4) from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. Here we report that GLUT4 in the plasma membrane of 3T3-L1 adipocytes were located predominantly in caveolae invaginations: by immunogold electron microscopy of plasma membranes, 88% of GLUT4 were localized to caveolae structures and this distribution within the plasma membrane was not affected by insulin. By immunofluorescence microscopy, a major part of GLUT 4 was colocalized with caveolin. The total amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane increased 2.2-fold in response to insulin as determined by immunogold electron or immunofluorescence microscopy. GLUT4 were enriched in caveolae fractions isolated without detergents from plasma membranes of rat adipocytes. In these fractions, GLUT4 were largely confined to caveolin-containing membranes of the caveolae preparation isolated from insulin-stimulated cells, determined by electron microscopy. Insulin increased the amount of GLUT4 2.7-fold in this caveolae fraction. Caveolae were purified further by immunoisolation with antibodies against caveolin. The amount of GLUT4 increased to the same extent in the immunopurified caveolae as in the cruder caveolae fractions from insulin-stimulated cells. We conclude that insulin induces translocation of GLUT4 to caveolae.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25037 (URN)10.1096/fj.01-0646fje (DOI)9461 (Local ID)9461 (Archive number)9461 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
3. In human adipocytes the insulin receptor and IRS1 are localized in caveolae, and caveolae destruction makes cells resistant to insulin signaling for metabolic and mitogenic control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In human adipocytes the insulin receptor and IRS1 are localized in caveolae, and caveolae destruction makes cells resistant to insulin signaling for metabolic and mitogenic control
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations with several functions, one of which appears to be to organize receptor mediated sigoaling. Here we show that in human adipocytes the iosulin receptor is localized in caveolae: by electron microscopy and immunogold detection and by isolating caveolae from plasma membranes. We similarly demonstrate that significant part of the immediate downstream signal mediator IRS1 is localized at the plasma membrane and caveolae. A detailed image shows the caveola as a bulb, protroding into the cell interior, with a neck attaching it to the plasma membrane. The caveolar structural protein caveolin is localized in the neck aod not in the bulb of the caveola. The receptor is active in caveolae since insulin stimulation caused tyrosine specific phosphorylation of the receptor recovered in isolated caveolae. Caveolae contain a major part of the free cholesterol in the plasma membrane and cholesterol is a stroctural component of caveolae. Depletion of cholesterol from the cells using B-cyclodextrio blocks insulin stimulation of glucose uptake, insulin inhibition of perilipin phosphorylation in response to isoproterenol, and insulio stimulation of protein kinase B and Map-kinases ERK1/2 phosphorylation- in effect making the human adipocytes insulin resistant. The insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS1 are, however, not affected, indicating that caveolae integrity is required downstream of IRS1, consistent with its colocalization with the insulin receptor io caveolae in human adipocytes.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84462 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
4. Lipid composition of caveolae and of surrounding plasma membrane in rat adipocytes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lipid composition of caveolae and of surrounding plasma membrane in rat adipocytes
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Caveolae are invaginations of the plasma membrane that may arise from so called rafts in the presence of the structural protein caveolin. We have isolated caveolae from purified plasma membrane of primary rat adipocytes using ultrasonication to disrupt the membrane followed by density gradient ultracentrifugation. This caveolae fraction was further purified by adsorption to antibodies against caveolin. As a comparison we also isolated a detergent-insoluble fraction of the plasma membrane, utilizing the detergent insolubility of caveolae and rafts. Caveolae were strongly enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin, the concentration was 3.5 and 2.8-fold, respectively, higher in the caveolar membrane than in the surrounding plasma membrane. Phosphoacylglycerols were also concentrated in caveolae, while proteins were depleted compared to the surrounding plasma membrane. We have calculated that an average adipocyte caveola contains 18000 molecules of cholesterol, 6000 of sphingomyelin, 18000 of phosphoacylglycerol, 350 protein molecules, and about I 00 glycolipid molecules.

We analyzed for a range of glycolipids and especially gangliosides. Of these GM3 and GD3 are the most prevalent and both were enriched in caveolae, together with GM1 and GDla. GDlb and GTib were present in the plasma membrane at low levels, while GM2, GD2, GQ1b, sulphatide, and lactosylceramide sulphate were not detected. None of them were detected in caveolae. As a first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of purified caveolae from primary cells, our results provide a firm basis for the examination of caveolae formation using artificial membranes.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84464 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-09 Created: 2012-10-09 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved

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