Polyunsaturated fatty acids induce peroxisome proliferation. This phenomenon is mediated by the ligand-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). This thesis is an investigation on the role of eicosanoids and oxidized products of linoleic acid for the activation of PPARs. Special emphasis was given to the subtype PPAR/gamma/ in the context of atherosclerosis.
It had earlier been shown that arachidonic acid induces peroxisome proliferation in Morris Hepatoma 7800C1 cells. We investigated whether this effect could be attributed to a cytochrome P-450IVA product of arachidonic acid, 20-hydroxy-arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid, but not 20-hydroxy-arachidonic acid induced lauryl-CoA oxidase activity. The effect of arachidonic acid was potentiated by all-trans retinoic acid, consistent with the notion that PPAR/RXR heterodimers mediate the effect.
Several reports in the litterature were suggestive of an important role of peroxisomes in eicosanoid metabolism. However, nobody had isolated pure peroxisomes and investigated their eicosanoid metabolizing ability. We therefore investigated the ability of peroxisomes to metabolize the eicosanoid 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE). Incubation of tritium-labeled 12(S)-HETE with isolated peroxisomes from rat liver or kidney peroxisomes demonstrated that more than 90 % of the diethyl ether extractable radioactivity was due to a single metabolite, identified as 8-hydroxy-6, 8, 12-octadecatrienoic acid (8-OH-16:3). This compound was apparently formed by two rounds of ß-oxidation. The data for the first time provided conclusive evidence for a role of peroxisomes in HETE metabolism.
The second half of the thesis deals with the identification of natural PPAR/gamma/ ligands in LDL from atherosclerotic patients and in activated macrophages. Analyses of the endogenous content of selected monohydroxy fatty acids in LDL isolated from a group of patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication, showed the presence of 9- and 13-HODE, 5-, 12-, and 15-HETE. These compounds activated PPAR/gamma/ in macrophages and preferentially recruited the coactivator protein CBP to PPAR/gamma/RXR/alpha/ heterodimers. 15-deoxy-/DELTA/12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15-deoxy-/DELTA/12,14-PGJ2) was identified as a PGD2 metabolite in macrophage cultures (see below). It induced the interaction of PPAR/gamma/RXR/alpha/ heterodimers with both CBP and SRC-1. This observation suggests that different PPAR/gamma/ ligands may induce different effects through a single kind of receptor by differential recruitment of coactivators.
Although PGD2, is not a PPAR/gamma/ ligand, it induces PPAR/gamma/-mediated effects in IFN-/gamma/-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, suggesting that the effects required metabolism. We therefore investigated PGD2 metabolism in macrophage cultures, and determined the capacity of these metabolites to activate PPAR/gamma/. Two novel (/DELTA/12-PGD2, 15-deoxy-/DELTA/12,14-PGD2) and two previously known PPAR/gamma/ activators (/DELTA/12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-/DELTA/12,14-PGJ2) were identified by mass spectrometry. The structural difference between the novel products and the previously recognized PPAR/gamma/ agonists , /DELTA/12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-/DELTA/12,14-PGJ2, is that they contain a 9/alpha/-hydroxy group and lack a /DELTA/9,10 double bond. Two novel PPAR/gamma/ activators were formed in equal or greater amounts and were more potent activators of PPAR/gamma/ in macrophages.
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 1999. , 58 p.
1999-02-12, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Papers, included in the Ph.D. thesis, are not registered and included in the posts from 1999 and backwards.