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Cytokines in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology/Allergy/Rheumatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2000 (English)In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 47, no 1, 157-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The allergy-preventing effect of breast-feeding remains controversial, possibly because of individual variations in the composition of the breast milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of cytokines involved in allergic reactions and IgA antibody production in breast milk from allergic and nonallergic mothers. The cytokine concentrations were determined in colostrum and 1-mo milk samples from 24 mothers with, and 25 mothers without, atopic symptoms, using commercial ELISA kits. The immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor-β was predominant and was detectable in all milk samples. IL-6 was detected in the majority of colostral and mature milk samples, whereas the other cytokines were less commonly detected. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β, which are all involved in IgA synthesis, correlated with each other and with total IgA concentrations in colostrum. The concentrations of IL-4 were higher in colostrum from allergic than nonallergic mothers, and similar trends were seen for IL-5 and IL-13. In conclusion, transforming growth factor-β and IL-6 were the predominant cytokines in human milk. The correlation between the concentrations of cytokines involved in IgA synthesis, i.e. IL-10, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β, may explain the stimulatory effect on IgA production in breast-fed babies. Varying concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 may explain some of the controversy regarding the possible allergy-preventive effect of breast-feeding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 47, no 1, 157-162 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25827DOI: 10.1203/00006450-200001000-00026Local ID: 10264OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-25827DiVA: diva2:246375
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Immunological factors in breast milk in relation to allergy in mother and child
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunological factors in breast milk in relation to allergy in mother and child
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The allergy preventive effect of breast-feeding against the development of allergy is controversial and some of this controversy may be due to differences in the composition of breast milk between different mothers.

Aim: To analyse IgA, cytokine and chemokines levels in human milk and relate the findings to matemal allergy and to development of atopic disease and IgA production in the infants, and furthermore, to assess the effects of breast milk on CBMC cytokine production. To approach these aims, several assays and methods had to be developed.

Material and Methods: The levels of total IgA, secretory IgA and ß-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin and Fel d 1 specific IgA antibodies in breast milk and saliva, as well as IL- 4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -13, -16, IFN-γ, TGF-ß, eotaxin, MIP-1α and RANTES in breast milk were analysed by ELISA. Cytokine responses from phytohaemagglutinin, cat dander or ovalbumin stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells were studied in the absence or presence of colostrum.

Results: The composition of immunological factors in breast milk varied widely between different mothers. The levels of secretory IgA and ß-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin specific IgA were higher in breast milk from non-allergic than allergic mothers. On the other hand, allergic mothers had higher levels of IL-4, IL-8 and RANTES in their breast milk. There were no relation between the levels of secretory IgA, cytokines and chemokines in breast milk and the development of atopic disease and salivary IgA production in the infants, however. Colostrum inhibited phytohaemagglutinin induced IFN-γ and IL-4 production and cat dander induced IFN-γ production. In contrast, allergen induced IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 production was enhanced by colostrum. The effects of breast milk on cytokine production were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. The inhibiting effect of colostrum on phytohaemagglutinin induced IFN-γ production correlated with breast milk TGF-β levels, and was partly blocked by the addition of an anti-TGF-ß antibody.

Conclusion: There were great individual variations regarding the levels of total and allergen specific IgA, cytokines and chemokines in human milk. Furthermore, breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers differed in several aspects. These differences seemed to be of minor importance for the development of atopic disease and IgA production in the breast-fed infant up to two years of age, however. The composition of human milk and the observed effects of breast milk on allergen and mitogen induced cytokine production confirms the anti-inflammatmy properties of human milk, and also suggest possible mechanisms whereby breast-feeding may protect against development of atopic disease. Our results do not support that the effects of breast-feeding are dependent on differences in the immunological composition of the milk, however.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2002. 53 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 724
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26650 (URN)11215 (Local ID)91-7373-168-4 (ISBN)11215 (Archive number)11215 (OAI)
Public defence
2002-04-12, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-14Bibliographically approved

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Böttcher, MalinJenmalm, MariaBjörkstén, Bengt

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