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Porphyrin Status in Aluminum Foundry Workers Exposed to Hexachlorobenzene and Octachlorostyrene
Porphyria Centre Sweden St. Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden and Porphyria Centre Sweden St. Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Porphyria Centre Sweden St. Göran Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Department of Occupational and Environmental, Medicine Örebro Medical Centre Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
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1999 (English)In: Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal, ISSN 0003-9896, Vol. 54, no 4, 248-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possible interference of hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene (i.e., thermal byproducts from hexachloroethane in aluminum degassing) with porphyrin metabolism was investigated in exposed workers. Urine specimens from 9 male aluminum foundry workers (i.e., smelters) at 6 different companies and from 18 controls—matched for sex, age, residence, and socioeconomic status—were analyzed for total porphyrins and porphyrin isomers. Workers exposed to hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene had a statistically significant increase in urinary total porphyrins, compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 13.63 ± 11.13 μmol/mol creatinine and 6.24 ± 3.84 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively; p = .02). The authors attributed the results mainly to differences in excretion of coproporphyrins—notably coproporphyrin III. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity was similar in both groups. There was a high correlation between levels of hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene, respectively, in plasma and urinary excretion of porphyrins; these findings, however, relied heavily on 1 subject for whom extreme values were obtained. The results indicated that occupational exposure to hexachlorobenzene and octachlorostyrene in aluminum degassing with hexachloroethane may affect porphyrin metabolism in a manner consistent with early secondary coproporphyrinuria—the first recognized step in the development of chronic hepatic porphyria. It was also noted that changes remained detectable some years after exposure ceased.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
1999. Vol. 54, no 4, 248-253 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26135DOI: 10.1080/00039899909602482Local ID: 10594OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-26135DiVA: diva2:246683
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical exposures, biological monitoring and cancer risks in Swedish aluminium foundries and remelting plants
2001 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aluminium foundries and remelting plants, a wide range of chemical agents are formed and emitted, including some highly toxic organochlorine compounds. This thesis explores emissions and exposures, as well as worker risk of porphyria and cancer.

During addition of hexachloroethane (HCE) for degassing of the melt, the major findings of organochlorine compounds were hexachlorobenzene (4,300 μg/g HCE) and octachlorostyrene (780 μg/g HCE).

In sand, die- and static-die casting aluminium foundries, the total dust concentrations varied up to 93 mg/m3. The aluminium exposures were generally low (< 0.5 mg/m3). For crystalline quartz, 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded only occasionally. The levels of minor alloy metals including lead, were low (<0.01 mg/m3). At different core production methods, high levels of dimethylethylarnine, aniline and furfuryl alcohol were observed. In die-casting, 33% of the mineral oil mist levels exceeded 1 mg/m3.

For smelters, the use of HCE as degassing agent, caused increased plasma levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) compared to controls. A difference in porphyrins, mainly attributed to enhanced concentrations of coproporphyrins, especially coproporphyrin III, was also noted.

In a cohort study of 6,454 workers from seven aluminium foundries and three remelting plants, no overall increased risk for cancer among male and female workers was found. Elevated risks were however seen for lung cancer, anorectal and sinonasal cancer. For sand casting workers, a statistically significant increase in lung cancer morbidity was seen for the long-term employed workers.

Based on a statistical model, cumulative total dust and crystalline quartz mg/m3 * years were assessed for 46 cases and 322 controls in a nested case-control study within the cohort. A non-significant increase in the relative risk was observed with increasing dose. The odds ratio for dust was 2.2 for the high exposure group (>29 mg/m3 * year). A similar trend was seen for crystalline quartz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2001. 61 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 696
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28651 (URN)13807 (Local ID)91-7219-987-3 (ISBN)13807 (Archive number)13807 (OAI)
Public defence
2001-07-01, Aulan, B-huset, Regionsjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-20Bibliographically approved

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