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Effects of breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2003 (English)In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 14, no 1, 27-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Breast milk contains several components that provide specific immunity and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of breast milk, on mitogen- and allergen-induced cytokine production from cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC), and if those effects differ between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The cells were incubated for 96 h with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), ovalbumin or cat dander in the presence of various dilutions of colostrum. Colostrum inhibited both mitogen- and cat-induced IFN-γ and mitogen-induced interleukin-4 (IL-4) production. The inhibition on IFN-γ production was to some extent caused by TGF-β, as the effect was modified when an anti-TGF-β antibody was added to the cultures. In contrast, colostrum enhanced allergen-induced production of the Th2-like cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, and this was accompanied with increased production of IL-10. No differences were found between allergic and non-allergic mothers. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on IFN-γ production, which was partly due to the high levels of TGF-β, together with the enhancing effect on IL-10 secretion, confirm that breast milk is anti-inflammatory. Although the production of IL-5 and IL-13 was enhanced by colostrum, this was accompanied with an increased production of IL-10. Together with the high levels of TGF-β in breast milk and inhibitory effect of colostrum on IL-4 production, this suggests a possible mechanism whereby breast-feeding may protect against the development of allergy. Despite differences in the composition of breast milk between allergic and non-allergic mothers, the effects of breast milk on cytokine production from CBMC were independent of the atopic status of the mothers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 14, no 1, 27-34 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26400DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-3038.2003.02119.xISI: 000181109600005PubMedID: 12603708Local ID: 10938OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-26400DiVA: diva2:246949
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-05-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Immunological factors in breast milk in relation to allergy in mother and child
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunological factors in breast milk in relation to allergy in mother and child
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The allergy preventive effect of breast-feeding against the development of allergy is controversial and some of this controversy may be due to differences in the composition of breast milk between different mothers.

Aim: To analyse IgA, cytokine and chemokines levels in human milk and relate the findings to matemal allergy and to development of atopic disease and IgA production in the infants, and furthermore, to assess the effects of breast milk on CBMC cytokine production. To approach these aims, several assays and methods had to be developed.

Material and Methods: The levels of total IgA, secretory IgA and ß-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin and Fel d 1 specific IgA antibodies in breast milk and saliva, as well as IL- 4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -13, -16, IFN-γ, TGF-ß, eotaxin, MIP-1α and RANTES in breast milk were analysed by ELISA. Cytokine responses from phytohaemagglutinin, cat dander or ovalbumin stimulated cord blood mononuclear cells were studied in the absence or presence of colostrum.

Results: The composition of immunological factors in breast milk varied widely between different mothers. The levels of secretory IgA and ß-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin specific IgA were higher in breast milk from non-allergic than allergic mothers. On the other hand, allergic mothers had higher levels of IL-4, IL-8 and RANTES in their breast milk. There were no relation between the levels of secretory IgA, cytokines and chemokines in breast milk and the development of atopic disease and salivary IgA production in the infants, however. Colostrum inhibited phytohaemagglutinin induced IFN-γ and IL-4 production and cat dander induced IFN-γ production. In contrast, allergen induced IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 production was enhanced by colostrum. The effects of breast milk on cytokine production were independent of the atopic status of the mothers. The inhibiting effect of colostrum on phytohaemagglutinin induced IFN-γ production correlated with breast milk TGF-β levels, and was partly blocked by the addition of an anti-TGF-ß antibody.

Conclusion: There were great individual variations regarding the levels of total and allergen specific IgA, cytokines and chemokines in human milk. Furthermore, breast milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers differed in several aspects. These differences seemed to be of minor importance for the development of atopic disease and IgA production in the breast-fed infant up to two years of age, however. The composition of human milk and the observed effects of breast milk on allergen and mitogen induced cytokine production confirms the anti-inflammatmy properties of human milk, and also suggest possible mechanisms whereby breast-feeding may protect against development of atopic disease. Our results do not support that the effects of breast-feeding are dependent on differences in the immunological composition of the milk, however.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2002. 53 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 724
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26650 (URN)11215 (Local ID)91-7373-168-4 (ISBN)11215 (Archive number)11215 (OAI)
Public defence
2002-04-12, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-14Bibliographically approved

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Böttcher, MalinFredriksson, JennyJenmalm, Maria

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