Objective. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of urethrovaginal reflux as the cause of daytime incontinence in school-age girls, and to study the characteristic symptoms and the effect of simple instructions intended to amend the problem.
Material and Methods. Girls with urethrovaginal reflux were identified in a group of 169 girls, aged 7 to 15 years, referred to a specialist clinic because of daytime incontinence. They were evaluated by a noninvasive screening protocol, including a careful history and neurourologic examination, bladder diaries, urine analysis, uroflows, and residual urine determined by ultrasound. Girls with urethrovaginal reflux were instructed by a urotherapist on how to achieve better toilet habits.
Results. Urethrovaginal reflux was found in 21 (12.4%) of 169 girls as the sole (19) or contributing (2) cause of their daytime urinary incontinence. They all had a typical history of small leakage 5 to 10 minutes after voidings during the day, confirmed by a specific bladder diary. All were neurologically healthy, and all but 2 had a normal bladder function. The latter 2 girls had residual urine and asymptomatic bacteriuria. At follow-up after median 2 years, all girls were free from postmicturition leakage, but the 2 with residual urine remained daytime incontinent with cystometrically proven phasic detrusor overactivity.
Conclusions. Urethrovaginal reflux is a common cause of urinary incontinence in girls. The diagnosis is easily obtained by an adequate history, completed with a specific bladder diary. The problem is easily resolved by proper voiding instructions.
2003. Vol. 111, no 1, 136-139 p.