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Diabetes-related autoantibodies in cord blood from children of healthy mothers have disappeared by the time the child is one year old
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2002 (English)In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 958, 289-292 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autoantibodies found in cord blood in children who later develop diabetes might be produced by the fetus. If so, continuous autoantibody production would still be expected in these children at one year of age. We decided to determine autoantibodies in cord blood and to see whether they persisted in these children at one year. Autoantibodies against GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase) and IA-2 (tyrosine phosphatase) in cord blood were determined in 2,518 randomly selected children. Forty-nine (1.95%) were positive for GAD65 antibodies, 14 (0.56%) were positive for IA-2 antibodies, and 3 of them were positive for both GAD and IA-2. Four of the mothers of children with GAD65 autoantibodies in cord blood (8.2%) had type 1 diabetes as did 5 mothers of children with IA-2 antibodies (35.7 %), but only 0.4% of the mothers had type 1 diabetes in the autoantibody-negative group (P < 0.001). Information on infections during pregnancy was available in 2,169 pregnancies. In the autoantibody-positive group, 31.5% had an infection during pregnancy, which was more common than in the autoantibody-negative group of 500 children with the lowest values (20.1%; P < 0.04). At one year follow-up nobody of those with positive cord blood had GAD65 or IA-2 autoantibodies. We conclude that most autoantibodies found in cord blood samples of children are probably passively transferred from mother to child. Antibody screening of cord blood cannot be used to predict diabetes in the general population. Infections during pregnancy may initiate an immune process related to diabetes development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 958, 289-292 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26537DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb02989.xLocal ID: 11098OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-26537DiVA: diva2:247086
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Environmental determinants associated with Type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies in children
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental determinants associated with Type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies in children
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

Type 1 diabetes is a severe disease, which affects children with potentially severe consequences. The global incidence of Type 1 diabetes is increasing rapidly especially in young children. Second to Finland, Sweden has the highest incidence of Type 1 diabetes in the world.

The rapidly increasing incidence cannot be explained by a possible variability of the presence of risk genes in the population, but rather environmental factors.

Therefore, environmental factors contributing to ß-cell auto immunity should be of importance for the process leading up to clinical Type I diabetes in genetically predisposed individuals. Those factors should preferably be revealed early in life. The aim of this thesis was to investigate a large population of Swedish children in order to identify environmental factors, which could contribute to the autoimmune reaction towards insulin-producing ß-cells.

Material and methods

Families from the prospective population-based ABIS-project (All Babies in southeast Sweden) were studied. Blood samples from children were analysed at birth, one year and 2½ years of age for diabetes-related autoantibodies towards Tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2A) and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD). The parents completed questionnaires at birth, one year and 2½ years of age.

Results

Short breast-feeding period, early exposure to cow's milk formula and late introduction of gluten-containing foods as well as large consumption of cow's milk at the age of one year were all risk determinants for development of autoantibodies at 2½ years of age. Combined early introduction of cow's milk formula and late introduction of gluten-containing food increased the risk six times for acquiring persistent autoantibodies at 2½ years of age. Parenting stress and experiences of serious life events were associated with the induction of diabetes-related autoimmunity. Infections during pregnancy are related to diabetes-related autoantibodies in cord blood and at the age of one year.

Allergic symptoms such as rash, wheezing, allergy against fur-bearing animals and food allergies implied a risk for development of diabetes-related autoantibodies. Autoantibodies in cord blood had disappeared at the age of one year, and can therefore not be used as a screening method to predict diabetes in the general population.

Conclusions

None of the examined risk factors alone can explain Type 1 diabetes-related autoimmunity; but early nutrition, parental stress and infections can contribute to the development of diabetes-related autoantibodies.

Autoantibodies in cord blood cannot be used to predict later diabetes-related autoimmunity. Different aberrances in the immune system seem to co-exist in certain individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2005. 112 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 922
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30278 (URN)15795 (Local ID)91-85497-59-2 (ISBN)15795 (Archive number)15795 (OAI)
Public defence
2005-12-02, Berzeliussalen, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-10-01Bibliographically approved

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Ludvigsson, JohnnyWahlberg, Jeanette

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