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Wound infections after cardiac surgery: a Wound Scoring System may Improve Early Detection
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2002 (English)In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, Vol. 36, no 1, 60-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective - This study was aimed at describing the early development of wound infections after cardiac surgery to identify markers for upcoming infections.

Design - We followed a cohort of 200 patients for 3 months after cardiac surgery to establish the incidence of all types of postoperative infections. Wound healing and C-reactive protein (CRP) were followed for the first 2 weeks.

Results - A total of 175 patients out of 200 could be followed up. Using a broad definition of wound infection a total of 30% of the patients had some kind of wound infection. The diagnosis of most infections occurred after the patients had left the cardiac surgery unit (median 12 d after surgery). Our wound scoring method shows significant differences at an early stage between infected and non-infected wounds. At the time of diagnoses CRP was elevated in patients with deep sternal infection.

Conclusion - A long follow-up period is needed to establish the true incidence of infection. Wound scoring can give an early indication of wound infections and CRP can help in the diagnoses of deep infections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 36, no 1, 60-64 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26593DOI: 10.1080/140174302317282401Local ID: 11158OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-26593DiVA: diva2:247142
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The epidemiology and consequences of wound infections caused by coagulase negative staphylococci after thoracic surgery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The epidemiology and consequences of wound infections caused by coagulase negative staphylococci after thoracic surgery
2002 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background

Nosocomial infections in general and postoperative infections in pmticular are important aspects of modern health care. They are important factors to be taken into account when planning and organizing any kind of surgery. Thoracic surgery has become a common and important form of surgery involving significant amounts of patients and resources. Different kinds of infectious complications are not uncommon and cause considerable problems. Many microbes have been implicated in post-operative infections, but one of the most important ones in activities such as thoracic surgety is Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS). They exist in our environment and produce infections that are difficult to diagnose and complicated to treat. The source of the infections and the transmission routes remain to a great extent unclear.

Aims

To describe the basic epidemiology of sterna! infections after cardiac surgery and to find early indications of infections.To investigate the epidemiology of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci causing sternal infections and to describe the development of antibiotic resistance.

Methods and results

To describe and evaluate the impact of infections after thoracic surgety in our hospital we followed different patient populations. When examining the patients being infected we could show that risk factors mostly involved surgery and hospital related variables. The diagnosis of the infections was often late and the treatment is difficult and consuming major resomces. The late diagnosis could be explained by the discrete symptoms and that a marker for infection like CRP are difficult to evaluate in the post-operative patient. With increased surveillance of the wounds an earlier diagnosis would be possible. Following the development of the management of the infections in our hospital during the 90's we could also show that the time to diagnosis and the treatment periods became shorter.

CoNS caused the majority of the infections in our patients with little change during the 10-year petiod. Preliminary results indicate that the source of the CoNS is the hospital environment in a majority of the serious infections. The place and route of transmission is unclear but the operating theatre remains a possible place of transmissions. Even if the resistance patterns of the CoNS are quite diverse they are often multi resistant and to a substantial degree vancomycin remains the only antibiotic that can be used for the treatment.

Conclusions

Wound infections after cardiac surgery are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and CoNS play a major role in these infections. Risk factors that contribute to the infections are often associated with complicated surgery. Symptoms of the infections are often discrete and the diagnosis and treatment of the infections often stmt late. Intensified surveillance of the wounds could improve management of infections. We found a clone of CoNS causing a majority of the infections indicating that the source of the bacteria is often the hospital environment. CoNS as a major pathogen makes antibiotic treatment difficult, and there is a high risk of extensive antibiotic resistance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2002. 35 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 742
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26672 (URN)11239 (Local ID)91-7373-186-2 (ISBN)11239 (Archive number)11239 (OAI)
Public defence
2002-09-27, Elsa Brändsströmsalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2012-09-19Bibliographically approved

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Tegnell, AndersÖhman, Lena

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