Major and minor axes of the normal mitral annulus
2001 (English)In: Journal of Heart Valve Disease, ISSN 0966-8519, Vol. 10, no 2, 146-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Background and aim of the study: A dilated or abnormally shaped mitral annulus is a common cause of mitral valve regurgitation, and may be cured by annuloplastic surgery. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the diagnostic technique of choice. Our aim was to evaluate and suggest two-dimensional TEE reference values from a standardized procedure of measuring the mitral annular major and minor axes, and their cyclic changes. Methods: The annulus was approximated elliptic in the horizontal plane. The intercommissural (IC, major axis) and anteroposterior (AP, minor axis) distances were measured at end-systole (ES), at maximal valve opening (MO), and at end-diastole (ED) from a mid-esophageal view, in 13 men and eight women with normal echocardiographic findings. Indexed values and reproducibility were calculated. Results: The success rate was 100% at ES, 90% at MO, and 29% at ED. ES distances were largest (p <0.001) and most reproducible (5-5.9%). Body weight, but not height or age, had a significant impact. ES 95% prediction intervals for IC were 27 to 46 mm (16-23 mm/m2) and 22 to 36 mm (13-18 mm/m2) for AP (p <0.001). Corresponding body weight-corrected intervals were 0.39 to 0.59 (IC) and 0.32 to 0.48 (AP) mm/kg. No subject had IC:AP <1.1 together with an AP >0.45 mm/kg. Conclusion: Among measurements made at ES, MO and ED, those at ES provided the most reproducible results, and high-quality images were obtained in normal, non-obese subjects. The distances should be judged in relation to body weight or surface area and each other. The largest IC distance and the most elliptic shape were at ES, while the annulus was minimal at ED. The procedure and normal ranges presented may contribute to the evaluation of patients with mitral regurgitation.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2001. Vol. 10, no 2, 146-152 p.
Medical and Health Sciences
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26882Local ID: 11505OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-26882DiVA: diva2:247432