liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
The frequency of amblyopia among visually impaired persons
Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Ophthalmology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Ophthalmology, Vrinnevi Hospital, Norrköping, Sweden.
Department of Ophthalmology, Kalmar Hospital, Kalmar, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2002 (English)In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 80, no 1, 44-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To investigate the frequency of amblyopia among visually handicapped patients.

Methods: The study is a retrospective investigation of all living patients registered in four Visual Rehabilitation Centres in a region in southern Sweden. The area's total population numbered 865,612 persons of whom 11,365 were registered as visually handicapped (with visual acuity ≤ 0.3 in the better eye).

Results: Amblyopia was the main cause of decreased visual acuity in one eye in 1.72% (195 of 11,365) of the patients. The average age of the patients with amblyopia was 69 years (9−95 years) and 28.2% of these patients were less than 65 years old (the age for retirement in Sweden).

The median visual acuity in the amblyopic eye among these patients was 0.1. The median visual acuity in the nonamblyopic eye was 0.2. The most common cause of decreased vision in the nonamblyopic eye was macular degeneration (39.5%). Bilateral amblyopia was present in 13 (6.7%) of the amblyopic patients. By comparing this study with earlier studies, we can calculate that about 1.2% of the persons with amblyopia 0.3 or lower will eventually become visually handicapped.

Conclusion: A small but considerable number of patients who attend the Visual Rehabilitation Centres have amblyopia as a cause of their visual impairment. Since amblyopia can be treated if detected in childhood, later visual rehabilitation of these patients can be avoided or delayed, thereby reducing rehabilition costs for society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 80, no 1, 44-46 p.
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-27826DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0420.2002.800109.xLocal ID: 12582OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-27826DiVA: diva2:248378
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2017-12-13
In thesis
1. Visual screening of children in Sweden: epidemiological and methodological aspects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visual screening of children in Sweden: epidemiological and methodological aspects
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to assess the vision screening system and ocular status in Sweden of today, yesterday and tomorrow and to compare the prevalence of ocular disease before and after screening and treatment with special focus on amblyopia.

Screening has been defmed by the United States Commission of Chronic Illness (1957) as "the presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or defect by the application oftests, examinations or other procedures, which can be rapidly applied. Screening tests sort out apparently well persons who probably have a disease from those who probably do not". The screening system for eye disorders was introduced in the whole country in the beginning of 1970 and has not been evaluated in a greater area and for a longer period. Neither has an evaluation been done according to WHO's instructions. Amblyopia is the most common cause to visual impairment in one eye. The visual system is developing mostly in the first years of life and it is important to treat amblyopia in early childhood. The three first papers are retrospective studies and the fourth a prospective study. The study group in the first and second paper consisted of all children born 1982 in three Swedish cities from newborn until the age of 10 years. The children have been tested eight to nine times at the Child Health Care Centres and in school during this time. The sensitivity and specificity of visual screening were 92% and 97% respectively. The prevalence of ametropia was 7.7%, strabismus 3.1%, amblyopia ≤ 7 2.9% and organic lesions 0.2%. We compared the prevalence of amblyopia today with the time before screening was introduced in Sweden. This comparison shows that serious amblyopia has been reduced about 10 times with screening and treatment.

Loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye was investigated by studying patients with amblyopia at four visual rehabilitation centres. Approximately 1.2% of the people with amblyopia ≤ 0.3 will eventually become visually handicapped due to lesions in the better eye.

Despite visual screening and treatment there are some children left with residual amblyopia. We investigated ways to improve the system by lowering the age for visual acuity examination from 4 to 3 years and at the same time two vision charts were compared. We found that the testability rate for 3-year-olds was almost the same for the Lea Symbol chart and the HVOT chart (82.8% and 84.8% respectively). Testability was about 10% higher at 4 years. The positive predictive value was lower at 3 years (58%) than has previously been found at 4 years (72%).

Conclusion: In these studies we have found that screening is justified for the following reasons: visual screening is efficient in terms of sensitivity and specificity and many important ocular conditions are detected in this process; the prevalence of serious amblyopia is greatly reduced by screening and treatment; loss of vision in the non-amblyopic eye is a significant problem, which can be greatly reduced by screening and treatment, thereby saving expenses for the society.

The following has been found regarding the design of visual screening: visual acuity testing is efficient in detecting visual disorders from 4 years and up; visual acuity can be tested at 3 years, but with lower positive predictive value; the most widely used charts in Sweden and internationally, the HVOT chart and the Lea Symbols chart perform equally well in visual acuity testing of 3-year-old and 4-year-old children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2004. 40 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 852
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23541 (URN)3012 (Local ID)3012 (Archive number)3012 (OAI)
Public defence
2004-05-28, Hälsans Hus, aulan, Hälsouniversitet, Linköping, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2012-10-30Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Jakobsson, PeterKvarnström, Gun

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Jakobsson, PeterKvarnström, Gun
By organisation
OphthalmologyFaculty of Health Sciences
In the same journal
Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica
Medical and Health Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 58 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf