Traditionally, Swedish industries have been experiencing lower power prices compared with industries in the European continent. The specific power consumption is 2- 3 times higher than other competing industries abroad.
Since July 2004, the power market is deregulated where industries have the possibility to choose supplier. This could imply a harmonized price level across the continent. This would be disadvantageous for Swedish companies if nothing will be done to reduce power consumption.
Marginal power production is based on coal-fired condensing power plant in the European power system. Independent of location, reducing the use of electricity would affect the use of expensive and environmentally not favorable plants.
In this thesis a method that can be used by nearly all industries is presented. The method has been applied on different case studies within different projects like project in Volvo Cars plants in Guthenburg and Gent, Electrolux cooker manufacturing in three European cities, Fredericia in Denmark, Spennymoor in England, Motala in Sweden and in the Oskarshamn area and a similar project ELOST in Östergotland and within program "Uthållig kommun" in Sweden.
The studies show that the all industries that are considered can reduce their electricity energy use by about 50 %. This would imply significant reduction of carbon dioxide emission in the continent.
Using top-down approach system failures can be identified and corresponding measures can be taken to improve the system. The use of energy can be reduced through energy avoiding cooling and heating at the same time, controlled operation of compressors and the use of power driven tools instead of compressed air driven tools, the use of efficient lamps and controlled ventilation or totally avoiding ventilation in some manufacturing halls, application of district heating driven absorption chillers and no production use can also contribute to reduced electric energy use.
Experiences from performed case studies indicate that system failures regarding the electricity use have been detected in nearly all investigated industries.
Three "laws" are distinguished:
- 1kWh electricity from a coal fires condensing power plant will give rise to aout 1kg CO2 i.i. : 1 kwh el ≈ 1 kg CO2
- Low electricity price implicate high electricity use and vice versa i.e: (Electricity price) times (specific use) ≈ constant
- The efficiency of a coal fired condensing power plant is about 30% which implicate: Electricity price > three times the fuel price
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2005. , 178 p.