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A new probe for ankle systolic pressure measurement using Photoplethysmography (PPG)
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Vascular surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Vascular surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)In: Annals of Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0090-6964, E-ISSN 1573-9686, Vol. 33, no 2, 232-239 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An automated method for ankle systolic pressure measurement, less operator dependent than the standard continuous wave (CW) Doppler technique, would imply an advantage both in patient measurements and in epidemiological studies. We present a new photoplethysmographic (PPG) probe that uses near-infrared light (880 nm) to detect pulsatory blood flow underneath the distal end of a standard pneumatic cuff. The probe is adapted to the anatomical conditions at the ankle, permitting recording of pressures in both ankle arteries separately. The validity of the equipment was tested with CW Doppler-derived systolic pressures and invasive blood pressure measurements for reference. In 20 healthy subjects, visual analysis of the PPG curves revealed a mean difference between CW Doppler and PPG measurements of –0.5 mmHg (SD 6.9). Corresponding results for the anterior and posterior tibial arteries separately were –1.8 mmHg (SD 6.2) and 0.9 mmHg (SD 7.3), respectively. A correct probe position was essential for the results. In direct recordings from the dorsalis pedis artery in 10 intensive care patients, PPG underestimated systolic pressure in the anterior tibial artery by 4.5 mmHg (SD 12.1). With further development, the PPG probe, integrated in the pneumatic cuff, may simplify measurements of ankle systolic pressures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 33, no 2, 232-239 p.
Keyword [en]
near-infrared light, CW Doppler, leg, anterior tibial artery, posterior tibial artery, blood pressure determination
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28919DOI: 10.1007/s10439-005-8982-7Local ID: 14122OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-28919DiVA: diva2:249731
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. On leg ischaemia: aspects of epidemiology and diagnostics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On leg ischaemia: aspects of epidemiology and diagnostics
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The first part of this thesis consists of a population-based epidemiological study on symptomatic leg arterial disease in a Swedish community, based on a postal questionnaire and systolic ankle pressure measurements, with calculation of the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI; usually ≥ 1.0 in healthy subjects). The second part investigates alternative methods for ankle systolic pressure measurements, with the potential of automation.

(Papers I-III) A postal questionnaire on leg symptoms and concomitant diseases was distributed to all the inhabitants of Vadstena 50-89 years old (n=7,524). The response rate was 92% and of those reporting any leg pain, 80% (353/441) attended an examination with ABPI determination. Symptomatic leg ischaemia (SLI) was defined as leg pain on walking + ABPI ≤ 0.8. The prevalence was 4.1 %, increasing with age, with no major difference between men and women. Other manifestations of arteriosclerotic disease (previous angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular incident), hypertension and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent among SLI cases than in healthy subjects. At a four-year follow-up, the age and sex adjusted mortality ratio was almost doubled in SLI subjects. Their relative risk of a myocardial infarction, cardiac death and death due to any cardiovascular event was 2.7, 2.0 and 1.9, respectively, compared to an age and sex matched control group. In SLI subjects without a previous history of ischaemic heart disease, the relative risk of a myocardial infarction was 3.1. Cardiovascular disease alone was mainly responsible for the increased risk of death. At a ten-year follow-up, a baseline ABPI up to 0.8 was inversely correlated with mortality. In a Cox regression model, a low ABPI was significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of death. An ABPI of 0.81-0.99 was not associated with an increased mortality risk. Over ten years, 1/7 of the SLI cases had a leg vascular reconstructive procedure, the majority within the first two years, and 1/14 underwent a major amputation. In conclusion, in spite of the good prognosis of the local disease, SLI can be looked upon as a marker for generalised arteriosclerotic disease and as a risk predictor for severe arteriosclerotic events and premature death.

(Papers IV-VI) Oscillometric technique, commonly used for automatic arm blood pressure measurements, was validated against the CW Doppler in systolic ankle pressure determination in healthy subjects and in patients with leg arterial disease. While performing adequately in healthy subjects, it was found to be invalid in leg arterial disease. The oscillometric technique was deemed as not suitable for use as an automatic ankle pressure recorder in the diagnosis ofleg arteriosclerotic disease.

A new technique, based on a two-channel photoplethysmographic (PPG) probe (880nm) placed underneath the pneumatic cuff, together with electronics, was developed and compared with both CW Doppler and intra-arterial recordings in subjects without vascular disease, and with the CW Doppler in leg arterial disease. On visual analysis of the PPG curves, the agreement was good. An automatic algorithm for analysis of PPG-data gave comparable results. The PPG method is a promising technique for future automation of systolic ankle pressure measurements, and for inclusion in a complete ABPI recorder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2005. 81 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 884
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30837 (URN)16490 (Local ID)91-7373-862-X (ISBN)16490 (Archive number)16490 (OAI)
Public defence
2005-03-04, Berzeliussalen, Universitetssjukhuset, Campus US, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-10-03Bibliographically approved

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Jönsson, BjörnLaurent, ClaesSkau, TommyLindberg, Lars-Göran

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