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Developing efficient industrial systems through increased integration: applications in the forest industry
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The starting point of this work is that it is possible for an industry to increase its product value and simultaneously decrease its use of resources and production of waste material if its material and energy flows are effectively integrated into a larger system. The character and the extent of a company's environmental impact is to a large extent determined in this interaction between companies and other external actors.

The objective of this study was to find and evaluate examples of integration in the Swedish forest industry, and to develop an approach for initiating integration. The results are based on socio-technical case studies, and functionality, organisation and development of integrated systems have been addressed. The types of integration discussed are integrated biofuel upgrading, material and energy exchange between industries and/ or community, and the possibility to initiate the development of a local industrial ecosystem. It is argued that a certain degree of integration exists within the forest industry today, and in the cases studied here the integration is considered fruitful from the companies' point of view. Some means of improvement are suggested in the systems studied and it is confirmed that these can give environmental advantages.

The human dimensions of increased integration are discussed, and it is seen that the conditions for implementation differ depending on the type of system considered. The most important conditions common for all systems are a positive attitude from the companies involved and a willingness to act. One factor that can have both a positive and a negative impact is if the company is part of a larger group. With regard to the integration of biofuel upgrading, it is seen that it is important to show that the biofuel combine is a way to develop the company in its strategic direction. Important factors for the development of a local industrial ecosystem were local roots and good knowledge of the system. Lack of resources, imperfect environmental regulations, time frames and the risks involved when adopting new technologies were among the barriers identified.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2005. , 54 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1142Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 71
Keyword [en]
forest industry, integration, industrial ecology, energy efficiency, co-operation, biofuel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29224Local ID: 14504ISBN: 91-85297-12-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-29224DiVA: diva2:250036
Presentation
2005-01-25, Hållfasthetsläras seminarierum, Hus A, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-11-12
List of papers
1. Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient pellet production in the forest industry: A study of obstacles and success factors
2005 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 30, no 1, 38-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With an expanding market for upgraded biofuel in many countries, it is important to develop efficient production methods for upgrading wet biomass. The possibilities for heat recovery can be improved if the upgrading process is integrated with other energy-intensive processes, as for example a pulp mill or a sawmill, in a biofuel combine. This work evaluates obstacles and success factors for forming such biofuel combines with the forest industry. Case studies and calculations on theoretical cases have been used together with literature references to evaluate how a biofuel combine can be realised and to compile obstacles and success factors for a combine.

It could be seen from the case studies that an excess of by-products and waste heat, together with an existing need for investments are important driving forces for the formation of biofuel combines in the forest industry. The market was also identified as an important factor, which can be both an obstacle and a success factor depending on the situation. It was concluded that the existence of a small-scale pellet market near the plant is important for economic feasibility when sawdust is used as raw material. The conditions for the biofuel combine are different depending on the form of ownership. When a pulp mill or sawmill owns the pellet factory, it was concluded that minimising the risk by using well-known technologies can be an important factor for the realisation of the combine.

Keyword
Pellet production; Biofuel combine; Energy efficiency; Forest industry; Success factors
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12640 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.09.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
2. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach
2007 (English)In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, no 6, 442-455 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

Keyword
industrial ecology, eco-industrial parks, industrial symbiosis networks, forest industry, integration, energy system analysis
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12641 (URN)10.1002/bse.485 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-10-15 Created: 2007-10-15 Last updated: 2014-02-05
3. Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensions
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, tius role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intra-organisational issues may impede inter-organisational integration.

Keyword
forest industry, energy and material exhanges, integration, co-operation, industrial ecosystems, industrial symbiosis, actors' views
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100822 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-12 Created: 2013-11-12 Last updated: 2013-11-12

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