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Exergy analysis of a pulp and paper mill
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 29, no 1, 79-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different energy and exergy concepts and methods are presented and applied to a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Flow diagrams show that the exergy content is mostly much less than the energy content of the flows. The largest exergy losses appear in the boilers. Heating processes are highly exergy inefficient. A limited Life Cycle Exergy Analysis (LCEA) shows that the exergy output amounts to over 3 times the spent exergy as non-sustainable resources. By replacing the present use of non-sustainable resources, mostly fuel oil, the mill could move towards a truly sustainable process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 29, no 1, 79-93 p.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29317DOI: 10.1002/er.1041Local ID: 14614OAI: diva2:250129
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-01-08
In thesis
1. Using exergy and optimization models to improve industrial energy systems towards sustainability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using exergy and optimization models to improve industrial energy systems towards sustainability
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With finite natural resources and large energy demands in the world, a sustainable development approach becomes increasingly important in the improvement of energy systems. The concept of sustainability is examined with relation to exergy flows on the earth. The present industrial society is obviously not sustainable. The main aim of this study is to analyze and improve industrial energy systems towards an increased sustainability.

Exergy analysis is used for evaluating energy systems and for guiding efficiency-improvement efforts. An existing optimization method is improved and applied to an energy system in order to maximize its economic feasibility and profitability. Life cycle analysis based on exergy is applied in order to further guide towards sustainable development. This thesis offers tools to better evaluate energy systems with regard to physical resource use, economy and environment. These tools are particularly useful for decision-making in long-term plarming.

The concepts and methods presented are useful in the design and optimization of more sustainable energy systems, particularly in industrial processes. A typical Swedish industry, a pulp and board mill, is examined using an improved optimization method together with the exergy method. The main cause of the low exergy efficiency in the mill is irreversibility of combustion and of heat transfer in the steam generator. The change in the price of electricity has a greater effect on the energy cost than the change in the price of fuel, which means a unified European electricity market has large impact on the Swedish industry. Increasing efficiency of processes usually minimizes environmental damage and maximizes economic benefits. In spite of increasing the exergy loss switching from fossil fuel to bio-fuels can decrease the net CO2 emission as well as the energy cost, and is a step towards increased sustainability. The investments in an oil-bark boiler, evaporation plant and recovery boiler give a good supply of sustainable resources, a reduction of environmental impact, and both energy and economical saving. In addition, with replacing the present evaporation plant with the non-conventional one, even more benefits could be achieved. Still, there are more potential for further improvement in the mill.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2004. 86 p.
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 868
National Category
Engineering and Technology
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22859 (URN)2200 (Local ID)91-7373-933-2 (ISBN)2200 (Archive number)2200 (OAI)
Public defence
2004-04-23, Kvalitetstekniks seminarierum, Hus A, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2013-01-08

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