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Estimated calcium intake related to lifestyle and bone mineral density in an adult Swedish population
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Osteoporosis is a public health problem. It is a disease that is present for a long period without signs, before resulting in the clinical sign, i.e. fracture(s). Osteoporosis can be prevented in part and there are treatments. Among other lifestyle factors, the dietary intake of calcium is important when working with preventive intervention towards individuals and groups. For dietary assessment, an instrument adjusted for Swedish circumstances is needed.

The aims of the thesis are to design and validate an instrument estimating calcium intake (I), to estimate calcium intake from dairy products and supplements in an adult Swedish population, and to explore associations between calcium intake and some lifestyle factors and between calcium intake and bone mineral density (II).

Two questionnaires were prepared, one short (A), containing questions about dairy products and supplements, and another more extensive (B), with questions on a wide variety of food products. The questionnaires were validated with dietary history as the gold standard. Two  age groups of women, 20-30 and 50-60 years, were included (n=467) (I). A randomised sample of 15% women and men aged 20-79 years in two communities answered a questionnaire (n= 1510). Forearm bone mineral density was measured in a subsample of this group (n=448) (II).

We found questionnaire A to be sufficient when discriminating individuals with low calcium intake from individuals with sufficient calcium intake (I). The mean calcium intake from dairy products was well attained (878 mg/day) although the range was wide. However, 12% in the 20-30 years age group and 31% in the 70- 79 years age group did not meet the recommended daily intake. Associations were found between calcium intake and residence and also physical activity. There was a tendency towards an association between calcium intake and forearm bone mineral density. No other associations with lifestyle factors were observed (II).

ln osteoporosis intervention work there is every reason to strive towards meeting the recommended daily intake for all individuals, and our quick and cheap food frequency questionnaire could be of value.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2005. , 37 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Health Sciences. Thesis, ISSN 1100-6013 ; 74
Keyword [en]
food frequency questionnaire, validation, calcium intake, osteoporosis, lifestyle factors
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29401Local ID: 14740ISBN: 91-85299-20-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-29401DiVA: diva2:250215
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-12-19
List of papers
1. Questionnaire about Calcium Intake: Can We Trust the Answers?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Questionnaire about Calcium Intake: Can We Trust the Answers?
1999 (English)In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 9, no 3, 220-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to construct and evaluate reliable questions concerning calcium intake and to include them in a questionnaire to be used in a community-based intervention program for preventing osteoporosis. Estimating calcium intake is an important factor in evaluating risk profiles for community residents. A very large amount of calcium in the Swedish diet comes from dairy foods. Two questionnaires were designed. Questionnaire A contained eight questions concerning consumption of dairy foods. Questionnaire B contained 52 questions on consumption of calcium-rich food groups and dishes, and also included the eight questions mentioned above. Questionnaire A was sent to 467 randomized women aged 20–30 and 50–60 years. Women with a low calcium intake also answered questionnaire B. In order to validate the questionnaires a selected number of the women were interviewed using a dietary history. In total 363 women answered questionnaire A, 118 of whom had a calcium intake below the recommended amount. Ninety-six women completed questionnaire B. Twenty-two women were interviewed with the dietary history. Statistical analyses using t-tests of the differences between answers to the same questions in two questionnaires and the interview, gave the following results. Questionnaire A provides reliable information about those who do not reach the recommended level of calcium intake. Questionnaire B does not provide any more information than questionnaire A. It is not possible to rank calcium levels in the diet with the questionnaires. Using the estimated calcium intake from dairy foods obtained in questionnaire A, individuals at risk of consuming less than the recommended intake of calcium can be identified, as can those consuming the required amount. In conclusion, questionnaire A is useful in discriminating between subjects with low and high calcium intake.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-25767 (URN)10.1007/s001980050140 (DOI)000080177200006 ()10201 (Local ID)10201 (Archive number)10201 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2013-12-19
2. Calcium intake in a Swedish adult population: relationship to life-style factors and bone mineral density. A descriptive study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calcium intake in a Swedish adult population: relationship to life-style factors and bone mineral density. A descriptive study
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background. This study is part of a community-based intervention programme dealing with the prevention of osteoporosis. The study aims were to estimate the calcium intake from dairy products and calcium supplements within a general population, and thereafter to study associations between calcium intake, relevant lifestyle factors, and forearm bone mineral density.

Methods. A randomised sample of 15 % of the inhabitants aged 20 - 79 years ( = 1510) from two Swedish municipalities answered a questionnaire, and a selected sub-sample (n=448) had their forearm bone mineral density measured.

Results. The mean consumption of calcium from dairy products was 878 mg/day. Men consumed more than women, and calcium intake decreased with increasing age. Twelve percent of the youngest age group in the study population and 31 % of the oldest age group did not meet the recommended daily intake. Associations were found between calcium intake and both residence and physical activity. There was a tendency towards an association between calcium intake and forearm bone mineral density. No other associations with lifestyle factors were observed.

Conclusion. Calcium intake is in general well attained in an adult Swedish population, although the intake range is wide (55 to 3213 mg/day from dairy products). Women aged 50-59 years and older people are at increased risk of not meeting the recommended daily intake.

Keyword
calcium intake, osteoporosis, prevention, lifestyle factors, bone mineral density, residence
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102727 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2013-12-19

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