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Mono- and diesters from o-phthalic acid in leachates from different European landfills
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Environment and Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
TuTech Integrated Management, TUHH Technologie GmbH, Germany.
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2003 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 37, no 3, 609-617 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leachates from 17 different landfills in Europe were analysed with respect to phthalates, i.e. phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) and their degradation products phthalic acid monoesters (PMEs) and ortho-phthalic acid (PA). Diesters are ubiquitous and the human possible exposure and potential to human health and environment has put them in focus. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether monoesters and phthalic acid could be traced in landfill leachates and in what concentrations they may be found. The results showed that phthalates were present in the majority of the leachates investigated. The monoesters appeared from 1 to 20 μg/L and phthalic acid 2–880 μg/L (one divergent value of 19 mg phthalic acid/L). Their parental diesters were observed from 1 to 460 μg/L. These observed occurrences of degradation products, of all diesters studied, support that they are degraded under the landfill conditions covered by this study. Thus, we have presented strong evidences to conclude that microorganisms in landfills degrade diesters released from formulations in a variety of products, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 37, no 3, 609-617 p.
Keyword [en]
Biodegradation, Landfill, Leachate, Phthalate, Diester, Monoester
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29668DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00304-4Local ID: 15050OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-29668DiVA: diva2:250485
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-08-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Phthalates in landfill leachates: a signature of their degradation: Analytical aspects & toxicological considerations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phthalates in landfill leachates: a signature of their degradation: Analytical aspects & toxicological considerations
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phthalic acid diesters comprise a large group of organic compounds that are used to manufacture a variety of products all over the world, and this has raised concerns about the fate of these compounds in the environment. The diester-containing products often end up in landfills, where they are degraded by various micro-organisms, which gives rise to transient intermediates such as phthalic acid monoesters and ortho-phthalic acid. These degradation products escape detection when applying the analytical protocols used to investigate the well-elucidated diesters, hence other methods are needed.

In the present work, the temporal pattern of degradation was scrutinised by studying leachates from both laboratory-scale Iandfill simulation reactors and newly established fullscale landfill cells. Leachate samples from a transect downstream of a landfill were also examined to highlight possible groundwater contamination from unlined landfills. In addition, extraction techniques were developed for simultaneous detection of diesters, monoesters of o-phthalic acid, and o-phthalic acid itself.

The degradation products of phthalate diesters (i.e. the monoesters and phthalic acid) were found in the landfill leachates, which demonstrates proves that phthalic acid diesters are degraded/transformed in situ in landfills. The monoesters and phthalic acid may accumulate in leachates during certain parts of landfill degradation development, for example, during establishment of the methanogenic micro-flora. The phthalates leached from landfills are potential groundwater contaminants, whereas breakdown of the diesters and monoesters was observed in the studied Iandfill plume. The monoesters and phthalic acid could be detected by proper acidification of the samples and derivatization of the extracts, followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Acute toxicity tests showed that the monoesters were generally less toxic than the corresponding diesters, and that phthalic acid was the least toxic. These results suggest that degradation of the diesters to monoesters and phthalic acidwill reduce the risk for acute toxic effects on the environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet, 2003. 66 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 268
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29573 (URN)14948 (Local ID)91-7373-588-4 (ISBN)14948 (Archive number)14948 (OAI)
Public defence
2003-01-31, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetssjukhuset, Linköping, 10:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-09-01Bibliographically approved

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Jonsson, SusanneEjlertsson, JörgenSvensson, Bo

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