Toxicity of mono- and diesters of o-phthalic esters to a crustacean, a green alga, and a bacterium
2003 (English)In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 22, no 12, 3037-3043 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The degradation of phthalic acid diesters may lead to formation of o-phthalic acid and phthalic acid monoesters. The ecotoxic properties of the monoesters have never been systematically investigated, and concern has been raised that these degradation products may be more toxic than the diesters. Therefore, the aquatic toxicity of phthalic acid, six monoesters, and five diesters of o-phthalic acid was tested in three standardized toxicity tests using the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the crustacean Daphnia magna. The monoesters tested were monomethyl, monoethyl, monobutyl, monobenzyl, mono(2-ethylhexyl), and monodecyl phthalate, while the diesters tested were dimethyl, diethyl, dibutyl, butylbentyl, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which were assumed to be below their water solubility. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for the three organisms ranged from 103 mg/L to >4,710 mg/L for phthalic acid, and corresponding values for the monoesters ranged from 2.3 mg/L (monodecyl phthalate in bacteria test) to 4,130 mg/L (monomethyl phthalate in bacteria test). Dimethyl and diethyl phthalate were found to be the least toxic of the diesters (EC50 26.2–377 mg/L), and the toxicity of the other diesters (butylbenzyl and dibutyl phthalate) ranged from 0.96 to 7.74 mg/L. In general, the phthalate monoesters (degradation products) were less toxic than the corresponding diesters (mother compounds).
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2003. Vol. 22, no 12, 3037-3043 p.
Phthalates, Phthalic acid monoesters, Daphnia Magma, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Vibrio fischeri
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29670DOI: 10.1897/02-548Local ID: 15052OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-29670DiVA: diva2:250487