liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Contamination in Swedich waste wood - environmental implications, sources and waste management strategies
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2004 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Today, bulk materials, e.g. wood, plastic, steel, and concrete, are contaminated by hazardous substances such as heavy metals, causing environmental and resource problems during waste management. This thesis aims to contribute with knowledge about the relationships between small substance flows and large bulk material flows, thereby enabling the development of strategies that decrease such environmental problems during waste handling. For this purpose, Swedish recovered waste wood (R WW) and its contaminants were studied in detail. Due to their high toxicity, nondegradability, and frequent use in urban areas, the heavy metals zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and mercury (Hg) were selected for study.

This thesis is mainly based on three studies. To start with, elemental fuel analyses of RWW were reviewed to accomplish a broad assessment of the elemental content in the waste and to define the general extent of contamination. Secondly, the sources for this contamination were tracked and identified by analysing the inflow of the studied substances via different products during the middle of the 20th century. Finally, different upstream strategies to handle R WW, here categorised as separation measures taken before the RWW enters the combustion plant, were compared and evaluated, determining how they would influence the environmental impact generated downstream in the current waste management system in Sweden.

It is concluded that current RWW has been substantially contaminated by all of the studied heavy metals during its lifetime in the technosphere. Furthermore, RWW of Swedish and European origin (Swedish combustion plants import RWW fuel from Europe) differ in their elemental composition. Swedish RWW contains more arsenic, zinc, chromium, copper, and nickel, whereas European waste displays higher concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury. For Swedish RWW, the main origin of this contamination is limited to a few sources, of which surface-treated and industrial preservative-treated wood constitute the most important ones. From a total metal flow perspective, it seems that the metal flows related to RWW are small compared to other metal flows in Sweden, except in the case of arsenic. Arsenic in RWW is of the same magnitude as other substantial flows in Sweden, such as a contaminant in coal.

Today, the management of RWW is mainly downstream-oriented, focusing on measures at combustion plants, such as dilution of contaminants and installing gas cleaning. In contrast to this downstream focus, the results from this thesis emphasise the importance of upstream separation strategies, which exhibit several environmental benefits compared to the current management. However, from a long-term perspective, all strategies suggested for improving the handling of RWW more or less shift pollution problems to the future. Hence, to accurately prevent environmental pollution, upstream strategies must be combined with measures taken further downstream in the current waste management system, permanently immobilising the hazardous substances. Again, upstream separation strategies are argued to be important since they decrease the volume problem, thereby enhancing implementation of such downstream immobilising strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2004. , 42 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1068
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29736Local ID: 15135ISBN: 91-7373-881-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-29736DiVA: diva2:250553
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-11-27
List of papers
1. Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal contamination in recovered waste wood used as energy source in Sweden.
2004 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 41, no 1, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large amounts of recovered waste wood (RWW) originating from construction and demolition activities (C&DWW) and industrial activities (IWW) are annually generated in Sweden. RWW is also imported for use as an energy source at biofuel boilers. Increased use of biomass is one strategy to decrease environmental impact, in general, and the emissions of green house gases, in particular. This study addresses the environmental and resource implications of metal occurrence in RWW that is used as an energy source at biofuel boilers. RWW contains elevated concentrations of arsenic, chromium, copper, zinc, mercury, nickel, lead and possibly cadmium. The metal composition of Swedish and imported RWW differs in that Swedish RWW contains higher concentrations of arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel and copper, while imported RWW contains higher concentrations of lead, mercury and cadmium. Ashes from combustion of RWW are nowadays generally disposed in landfills due to their elevated metal concentrations. This practice makes it impossible to use these ashes as filler material thereby replacing extraction of raw materials and decreasing the need for landfill space. Furthermore, landfilling leads to accumulation of hazardous heavy metals that poses a future environmental and health problem. If RWW from construction and demolition should contribute optimally to a sustainable energy system, cleaner waste wood flows are a prerequisite. The elementary measure is to track potential pollution sources in this waste stream and find out which are significant. Furthermore, since most of the RWW is untreated and unpolluted wood, there is a great environmental potential to separate this flow through the waste management system. Such an approach might lead to decreased environmental pollution of heavy metals and an improved resource management.

Keyword
Heavy metal pollution, Demolition waste, Recovered waste wood, Industrial waste streams, Sustainable development, Waste bioenergy
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14069 (URN)10.1016/S0921-3449(03)00100-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2013-11-27
2. Estimating the contribution of different pollution sources for the elevated heavy metal concentrations in recovered waste wood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the contribution of different pollution sources for the elevated heavy metal concentrations in recovered waste wood
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One crucial problem related to the task of decreasing environmental pollution and increasing resource efficiency is that many material flows are contaminated with hazardous substances. In this paper, the contamination of heavy metals in Swedish recovered waste wood is addressed. The main objective was to estimate the contribution of heavy metals from six selected pollution sources. It is shown that the occurrence of industrial preservative-treated wood, surface-treated wood, fastening systems, plastic waste, concrete, and soil explains most of the elevated concentrations of lead, chromium, zinc, copper, and arsenic. The sources for nickel, cadmium, and mercury arc more poorly understood, although several potential sources are identified. The included pollution sources differ in the extent of their integration to wood, which influences the possibility of removing them from the main waste flow. Two waste management approaches for obtaining less polluted recovered waste wood are discussed, and the possibilities and impediments for each strategy outlined.

Keyword
Waste wood, building and demolition waste, heavy metal contamination, waste management
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102035 (URN)
Available from: 2013-11-27 Created: 2013-11-27 Last updated: 2013-11-27
3. Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating waste management strategies: A case of metal-contaminated waste wood
2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, Vol. 52, no 1, 103-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden recovered waste wood (RWW) is used for heat production, which reduces the share of waste that is landfilled and recovers the energy content of the waste. However, this waste contains contaminated materials that pollute RWW with heavy metals, causing downstream environmental problems. The main objective of this study was to analyse how different upstream-oriented strategies to manage RWW, influence the arising of environmental pressures downstream the waste management system. Today, the contaminated materials in RWW are handled together with the main waste flow. This upstream approach was compared with a separation strategy that removes contaminants from the main waste flow thereby handling these materials separately downstream the waste management system. An extended substance flow analysis (SFA) methodology that also includes resource issues was applied for the analysis. The results show that the upstream separation strategy exhibits potential environmental benefits. However, to accurately prevent environmental pollution also in a long time perspective, upstream separation strategies must be combined with downstream measures aimed to immobilise the contaminants in by-products. Otherwise, such separation strategies, as the current handling of RWW, may cause temporal and spatial shifting of problems. To enable immobilising measures, however, upstream separation strategies are important since they decrease the volume problem.

Keyword
Waste management strategies, Heavy metals, Problem shifting, Substance flow analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14071 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.002 (DOI)
Available from: 2006-10-09 Created: 2006-10-09 Last updated: 2013-11-27

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Krook, Joakim

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Krook, Joakim
By organisation
Environmental Technique and ManagementThe Institute of Technology
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 119 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf