Growth of thick GaN layers by hydride vapor phase epitaxy
2005 (English)In: Journal of Ceramic Processing Research, ISSN 1229-9162, Vol. 6, no 2, 153-162 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
In this paper we describe recent experimental work on the growth of thick GaN layers (up to >300 μm) on sapphire with hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE), the removal of the sapphire substrate by the laser liftoff technique, and the properties of these thick GaN layers. Two different growth setups were used, one horizontal and one vertical system. Specific conditions in the growth procedure, like gas flow pattern, growth rate and the use of buffer layers, strongly influence the properties of the grown layers. Important defect problems are cracking (both during and after growth), and the generation of dislocations and surface pits. A large bowing is also observed for thick layers, depending very much on the properties of the initially grown material. For growth of thick layers excessive parasitic growth of GaN upstream of the substrate has to be avoided. Laser liftoff is demonstrated to be a feasible process to remove the sapphire substrate, causing the GaN surface bowing to decrease and revert from convex to concave. The threading dislocation density of 300 μm thick GaN layers is found to be about 107 cm-2, rather independent of the type of buffer layer employed. It reduces further in thicker layers. The pit density varies with growth conditions, it can be reduced if the parasitic growth is avoided. The bowing is a serious problem, since the layers have to be polished to make the surface epi-ready. The XRD rocking curve widths measured seem to correlate with the bowing of the layers, a reduction by about a factor two is often observed when the substrate is removed. Optical characterisation like photoluminescence (PL) and ir spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE) is very useful to monitor strain in the layers, as well as impurities and point defects. Residual shallow donors are related to O and Si, shallow acceptors are mainly of intrinsic origin, i.e. complexes with the Ga vacancy.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 6, no 2, 153-162 p.
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30788Local ID: 16413OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-30788DiVA: diva2:251611