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Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer X-ray mirrors
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 500, no 1-2, 84-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low-energy ion-assisted magnetron sputter deposition has been used for the synthesis of highly reflective Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirrors. A low ion energy and a high ion-to-metal flux ratio were employed in order to stimulate the adatom mobility while minimizing ion-induced intermixing at the interfaces. An analytic model, based on the binary collision approximation, was used in order to gain insight into low-energy ion-surface interactions as a function of ion energy and ion-to-metal flux ratio. The model predicted a favorable region in the ion energy-flux parameter space where only surface atomic displacements are stimulated during growth of Ni and V for multilayers. For a series of Ni/V multilayer mirrors with multilayer periods about Λ = 1.2 nm, grown with a continuous ion assistance using energies in the range 7-36 eV and with ion-to-metal flux ratios ΦNi = 4.7 and ΦV=20.9, specular and diffuse X-ray scattering analyses revealed that ion energies of ∼27-31 eV produced the best trade-off between reduced interfacial roughness and intermixing. However, it was also concluded that an interface mixing of about ± 1 atomic distance is unavoidable when a continuous flux of assisting ions is used. To overcome this limitation, a sophisticated interface engineering technique was employed, where the first 0.3 nm of each layer was grown with a high-flux low-energy ion assistance and the remaining part was grown with a slightly higher ion energy. This method was demonstrated to largely eliminate the intermixing while maintaining the smoothening effect of ion assistance. Two Ni/V multilayer soft X-ray mirror structures, one with 500 periods designed for near-normal incidence and one 150 periods reflecting polarizer at the Brewster angle, were grown utilizing the interface engineering concept. Both the near-normal incidence reflectivity as well as polarizability were improved by a factor of 2 as compared to previously reported data for an X-ray energy of E = 511 eV. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 500, no 1-2, 84-95 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30903DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2005.11.019Local ID: 16568OAI: diva2:251726
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2011-01-11

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Eriksson, FredrikGhafoor, NaureenBirch, Jens
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