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Model based aircraft design: high angle of attack aerodynamics and weight estimation methods
Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fluid and Mechanical Engineering Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis addresses modelling of high angle of attack aerodynamic characteristics and weight estimation for highly maneuverable aircraft during conceptual design. In order to allow configuration selection with sufficient confidence, especially with unconventional configurations, high angle of attack aerodynamic prediction and weight estimations methods need to be improved. In this thesis, a state-space variable approach is proposed for modelling high angle of attack aerodynamics including large angular rates. A new weight estimation based on a parametrical CAD model is also proposed.

The aerodynamic model is intended for use in both conceptual design and in later design phases. In conceptual design, the parameters are defined from geometrical data. Good results have been obtained with slender delta wings and on in various full configurations. When test data or CFD data arc available, the parameters are obtained from identification. Various results are presented with high accuracy iu the model. The developed model has been implemented in flight simulation, and in a sizing example, where two different aerodynamic models were used in order to show the influences of large angular rates on the geometrical layout. The presented weight estimation method is based on parametrical CAD models, and the weight is extracted from the structure layout. This allows any type of a ircraft configuration to be investigated, without the use of empirical or statistical approaches. Comparison with known aircraft has shown good agreement.

This thesis introduces a new aerodynamic model that includes large angular rates at any angle of attack, and a new weight prediction method. Both have shown good agreement with compared data and indicate that the models are suitable for conceptual design and that further studies should be conducted in order to extend the possibilities demonstrated here.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2005. , 140 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 968
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31437Local ID: 17220ISBN: 91-85457-18-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-31437DiVA: diva2:252260
Public defence
2005-12-02, Nobel salen, Hus B, Linköpings Universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-12-12
List of papers
1. Distributed aircraft analysis using web service technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed aircraft analysis using web service technology
2003 (English)In: SAE Transactions Journal of Aerospace, ISSN 0096-736X, Vol. 112, no 1, 445-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of modern aircraft requires the integration of multidisciplinary mouels for analysis in the early design phase to increase the chances of a successful project. In this paper, a framework for distributed aircraft analysis in the conceptual design including several domains is presented. The framework is based on so-called Web Service Standards, allowing integration of distributed models for system simulation and optimization using standardized interfaces. The analysis is controlled by a so-called sequencer which manages the interaction between simulation modules and an XML-based design data repository. This repository includes all design data and an executable process description defining the sequence for execution of the modules. In the paper, the framework with its underlying concepts is described. The approach is further illustrated using thedesign of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle as an example. This includes the definition of the stimulation modules, the process model, and definition and execution of an optimization problem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: , 2003
Keyword
aircraft analysis, web service technology
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23789 (URN)3306 (Local ID)3306 (Archive number)3306 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2012-12-12
2. Implications of scale effect for the prediction of high angle of attack aerodynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implications of scale effect for the prediction of high angle of attack aerodynamics
2005 (English)In: Progress in Aerospace Sciences, ISSN 0376-0421, E-ISSN 1873-1724, ISSN 0376-0421, Vol. 41, no 3-4, 301-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scale effect is of significance in all experimental aerodynamics testing. At high angles of attack such issues as Reynolds and Mach number scaling are further complicated by the presence of complex, unsteady separated flow structures. The understanding and quantification of such flow effects remains a substantial challenge to the combat aircraft designer. The challenge, especially during conceptual and preliminary design stages, is to obtain sufficiently accurate information to make relevant design decisions, addressing potential weaknesses before proceeding to detail design. The focus in the present review is on the application of the water tunnel in such cases. The combination of qualitative and quantitative data obtainable from the water tunnel provides a useful complement to other tools during the early design stages. The effect of Reynolds number in particular is however critical; and appreciation of its effects are critical to the effective use of such a tool. It is shown however that for certain configurations such effects can be small in comparison to other experimental effects.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-29478 (URN)10.1016/j.paerosci.2005.05.001 (DOI)14832 (Local ID)14832 (Archive number)14832 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-12-12
3. Wing weight estimation using an automated CAD-model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wing weight estimation using an automated CAD-model
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Advantages and possibilities offered by modern CAD tools in conceptual design are discussed. In order to illustrate these possibilities, a Computer Integrated (CI) method to estimate weight in conceptual design is presented. The CI method is based on geometry and simple load analysis; the weight is determined from a 3D computer model. The CI method is a compromise between empirical methods and time-consuming methods based on finite element analysis. The CI method allows investigation of unconventional and conventional configuration, and possibility of creating different structure layouts. The method has been applied on commercial aircraft for validation. The presented results have been compared with, other available methods in conceptual design. In addition to weight estimation, modern CAD programs offer integration and data exchange with other domains such as computational fluid dynamics, system simulation and production analysis and planning.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86271 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2012-12-12
4. Unsteady aerodynamic modelling: a simple state-space approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unsteady aerodynamic modelling: a simple state-space approach
2005 (English)In: Proc. of 43rd AIAA Annual Meeting and Exhibits, Reno, Nevada: AIAAA , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A simple mathematical prediction model for high angles of attack aerodynamics, including dynamic effect over delta wings, and an extension to full configuration is presented. The model presented is intended for application in conceptual design and is extended to parameters identifications in preliminary design with validation against experimental data. The aerodynamic model is based on leading edge suction analogy. In order to extend it to high angles of attack and dynamic motions, internal state variables are used to describe the different flow conditions, or state, over the wing/aircraft. In conceptual design the parameters used are determined from geometrical considerations and analogies with delta wings. To extend the mathematical mode to later design phases and augment the accuracy, the parameters are determined from wind tunnel data, in static case the present model has been extended to sideslip. The results obtained shows high accuracy in both static and dynamic cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reno, Nevada: AIAAA, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31408 (URN)10.2514/6.2005-855 (DOI)17179 (Local ID)17179 (Archive number)17179 (OAI)
Conference
43rd AIAA Annual Meeting and Exhibits, Reno, Nevada, USA, 2005
Note

Proceedings on CD

Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-12-12
5. Influences of unsteady aerodynamic in conceptual design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of unsteady aerodynamic in conceptual design
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Integration of unsteady and high-angles aerodyuamics is often done late in aircraft design. An attempt to integrate these aspects in conceptual and preliminary design is presented here. A simple aerodynamic model has been developed and used in conceptual design to study the influences of dynamic effects on platform geometry during high angular rate manoeuvres. In order to include these effects in conceptual design, flight simulation has been coupled with classic sizing and turn rate performance is included in the requirements for conceptual sizing. In one case, the sizing and simulation are performed with static aerodynamics, in the other case dynamic effects are included . The impact of large augular rate and its significance for open loop simulation is presented in the form of a pitch up manoeuver.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86277 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2012-12-12

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