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Gaining influence in standard-setting processes: a discussion of underlying mechanisms in 3G mobile telephony technology development
Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2003 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The environment in which companies operate is such that standards become increasingly important due to the built-in rigidities resulting from previous technology investments and network externalities. The research question is: How can a market-leading company gain influence on the formation of standards perceived as vital for the company-s continued business? The purpose of the dissertation is to explore, describe, and characterise how such influence may be gained; it thus aims to reveal some of the mechanisms underlying a technology standard-setting process. Market-leading here is interpreted as the company wanting to lead the development of the market by influencing the standards that will prevail in it, thereby aiming to secure market leadership (in measurable terms).

The dominant design concept, including technical, commercial, and procedural dimensions, serves as the basis for the theoretical discussion. From the review of literature it is concluded that the dominant design concept marginally addresses the emergence of a dominant design. Therefore the present study takes on a company "inside-out" perspective to examine how underlying mechanisms may be revealed.

The empirical data address the third generation (3G) mobile telephony core and access networks or the 3G infrastructure, which can be treated as the core technologies for the new 3G system. The data stem mainly from interviews with individuals involved in the process at Ericsson, the mobile telephony systems developer. One outcome of the research is a case that describes the story of 3G infrastructure standard setting from Ericsson's view.

On the basis of empirical data and theoretical framework, four foci are developed and used for analysis of the data. The foci developed are people and their relations, organizations and their relations, technology perception, and influencing others.

The point of departure is that the technology dimension is of utmost importance in this type of standard-setting process where a system of core technologies is chosen. After exploring and describing the process from the inside-out perspective, however, the overall finding from the research is that human behaviour plays the central role as individuals constitute the process by advocating and negotiating technology, form the organizations, embody the relations (including various types of network), and influence others in the market. Since people are at the core of standard-setting processes, a truly managerial issue is how to use the right people for the right tasks with proper timing during the process.

The findings from the 3G study are also related to the findings made in earlier research in a broader contextual analysis.

Critical to managing the standard-setting process is an understanding of where to fit a given standard into the technical hierarchy and the standards hierarchy. The maturity of the industry also needs to be analysed and addressed. It is concluded that each standard-setting process is a mix of de jure and de facto standard-setting mechanisms with "in-between arenas" and that there are a number of sub-processes.

A model characterising the roles of people with various functions over time and in a standard-setting process constitutes the main outcome of the research. This model constitutes three different functions (technical, tactical, strategic) and three process stages (research, formal standardisation, informal standardisation) thereby characterising nine different roles. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2003.
Series
Linköping Studies in Management and Economics. Dissertations, ISSN 0347-8920 ; 60Dissertations from the International Graduate School of Management and Industrial Engineering, ISSN 1402-0793 ; 79
Keyword [en]
Dominant designs, standard-setting processes, 3G mobile telephony technology development, technology and standards hierarchy, industry maturity, roles and functions of people
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31775Local ID: 17599ISBN: 91-7373-874-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-31775DiVA: diva2:252598
Public defence
2004-03-05, Sal C3, Hus C, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-09-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The role of personal networks in the development of industry standards: a case study of 3G mobile telephony
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of personal networks in the development of industry standards: a case study of 3G mobile telephony
2004 (English)In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 19, no 4, 283-293 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Industry standards affect the diffusion and adoption of new technology and the competitiveness of individual players but their development is not under the direct control of individual actors. Examines the role and importance of personal networks in the development of industry standards on the basis of a case study of Ericsson’s involvement in the development of standards for 3G mobile telephony. Notes how relations among parties and many types of forums stemming from previous development and marketing involvement affect the complex set of interactions shape the bottom-up self-organizing way in which standards emerge. The case study has implications for our understanding of the way standards develop and for managers attempting to influence the outcomes.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-23192 (URN)10.1108/08858620410516763 (DOI)2601 (Local ID)2601 (Archive number)2601 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13
2. Relations among actors forming dominant design: highlights from the 3G mobile telephony development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relations among actors forming dominant design: highlights from the 3G mobile telephony development
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper organisational actors to which a systems manufacturing company within the mobile telecommunication sector has its relations in order to set a dominant design are discussed. It is concluded that a company has to have a good understanding of previous technological developments and the impact thereof on present activities. Moreover it needs a high sensitivity for on-going actions in its network in order to follow-up and act on events and signals obtained and initiated.

Keyword
Standardisation, relations, actors, R&D, embeddedness
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89645 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2013-02-28
3. First, second or third wave of technology: should it matter to managers?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>First, second or third wave of technology: should it matter to managers?
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

When a company wishes to introduce a new technology what kind of stakeholders exists within a technology and market process where there seemingly are a lot of network externalities and installed base effects? How does the defmition of the technology affect the interdependencies created between such stakeholders in the early development phase, i.e. the standardisation process? The purpose is to discuss from the perspective of a technology developing company how different stakeholders and their forums for interaction interfere with and support each other. The case herein presents how Ericsson managed the interaction with the stakeholders and their forums during the early phase of 30 development. The analysis focuses on the arenas and the relations and the people involved in the standardisation process, and five concluding reflections regard: negotiation and power, opinions in compromise, absent customer, informal and formal arenas, multiple human skills.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89646 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2013-02-28
4. Obtaining opinion leadership in the third wave: 3G mobile telephony as (CO)3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obtaining opinion leadership in the third wave: 3G mobile telephony as (CO)3
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Opinion leadership theory normally applied on the adoption of consumer goods is evaluated for a third wave complex system as regards identity of opinion leaders and the character of the activities a company undertakes in its efforts to act as an opinion leader. The third wave complex system development process studied is the standardisation of the core network and radio access portions of the 30 mobile telephony system and this from the perspective of a large mobile systems developer. Based on the increased technical and market complexity compared to the second wave, it is concluded, contrary to existing opinion leadership theory, that the opinion leaders for third wave complex systems come from within the existing social system and that the opinion leadership is competence-oriented, collaboration-oriented and community-oriented.

National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89647 (URN)
Available from: 2013-02-28 Created: 2013-02-28 Last updated: 2013-02-28

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