liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Anaerobic degradation of phenol and related aromatics
Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
2000 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Phenol and other simple aromatic compounds have been found in water leached from landfills, showing that these types of compounds could be either present in disposed waste, or released from it via transformation and degradation processes. Hence, the fate anddegradation potential of such compounds under landfilling conditions is of great concern. Therefore, using micro-organisms from landfills, I have investigated the anaerobic biodegradation of phenol, dimethyl phthalate, 3-chlorobenzoate, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, tetrabromophthalic acid and aniline. The compounds were chosen to represent substrates of potentially important reactions in the transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds. 24 waste samples from landfills and a time series of samples taken over five years from fourlandfill simulation reactors (in all 20 waste samples) were used as sources of microorganisms. The capacity of these waste samples to degrade the halogenated aromatics was poor or completely absent, indicating that halogenated compounds could be more persistent inlandfills than in other previously investigated anaerobic environments. Phenol and dimethyl phthalate were more readily transformed by most landfill samples, but the degradation capacity was poorer in the landfill simulation experiments. Here the unique sampling series showed an increase in degradation capacity with time, indicating that one to two years is needed to allow a micro-flora capable of degrading aromatic compounds to develop. However, the landfill samples showed higher degradation potentials than the simulation reactor samples, even from the later stages.

A more extensive study designed to elucidate the phenol degradation pathway under anaerobic, fermenting conditions is also presented. Here, phenol was for the first time shown to be degraded to non-aromatic products in a non-methanogenic fermenting culture. The endproductsformed were benzoate, acetate and butyrate. The conversion of phenol to benzoate was proved to be an electron sink reaction, used during processes such as degradation of glucose and is a new example of the diversity of compounds that can used as electronsinks/ acceptors in anaerobic environments. The degradation pathway in the studied cultureproceeds via fom1ation of 4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA and benzoyl-CoA, and the activity of a CoA-transferase which activates 4-hydroxybenzoate was measured.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Motala: Kanaltryckeriet , 2000. , 61 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Arts and Science, ISSN 0282-9800 ; 212
Keyword [en]
Aromatic compunds, anaerobic degradation
Keyword [sv]
Fysik, Kemi
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32129Local ID: 17988ISBN: 91-7219-728-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-32129DiVA: diva2:252951
Public defence
2000-05-31, Sal Elysion, Hus-T, Universitetsområdet Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-08-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotics by organisms from munical solid waste under landfilling conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotics by organisms from munical solid waste under landfilling conditions
Show others...
1995 (English)In: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0003-6072, E-ISSN 1572-9699, Vol. 69, no 1, 67-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential for biological transformation of 23 xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms in municipal solid waste (MSW) samples from a laboratory scale landfill reactor was studied. In addition the influence of these xenobiotic compounds on methanogenesis was investigated. All R11, 1,1 dichloroethylene, 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, dimethyl phthalate, phenol, benzoate and phthalic acid added were completely transformed during the period of incubation (> 100 days). Parts of the initially added perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, R12, R114, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and benzylbutyl phthalate were transformed. Methanogenesis from acetate was completely inhibited in the presence of 2,5 dichlorophenol, whereas 2,4,6 trichlorophenol and R11 showed an initial inhibition, whenafter methane formation recovered. No transformation or effect on the anaerobic microflora occurred for R13, R22, R114, 3 chlorobenzoate, 2,4,6 trichlorobenzoate, bis(2 ethyl)hexyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and dinonyl phthalate. The results indicate a limited potential for degradation, of the compounds tested, by microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment as compared with other anaerobic habitats such as sewage digestor sludge and sediments.

Keyword
biodegradation, chlorinated compounds, freons, methane formation, phthalic acid esters, phenol
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31281 (URN)10.1007/BF00641613 (DOI)17042 (Local ID)17042 (Archive number)17042 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
2. Degradation of aromatic compounds by micro-organisms in solid waste samples from landfills and landfill simulation reactors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation of aromatic compounds by micro-organisms in solid waste samples from landfills and landfill simulation reactors
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The ability by micro-organisms developed in landfilled waste totransform phenol, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), aniline, tetrabromophthalic acid (TBPA), 3-chlorobenzoate (CB) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) was investigated using a method modified after ISO 17334. Forty-four solid waste samples from landfills and landfill simulation reactors (LSRs) were used. The LSRs were run over a five-year period and simulated acid and methanogenic landfill conditions. The biodegradability of each aromatic compound (0.5-0. 7 mM) was assayed over 100-200 days. The degradation capacity was monitored both by quantification of the aromatic compounds and by methane analysis

The degradation capacity for the halogenated aromatics was poor or completely lacking by the landfill inocula investigated showing that this kind of compounds might persist in landfill. TCP inhibited both the methanogenic and fermentative micro-flora present in the waste samples, however, in early LSR assays no inhibition was observed. Phenol and DMP was transformed to non aromatic products in most assays. The biodegradation capacity towards these compounds increased over time in the LSR studies i.e. the acid and early methanogenic land fill phases had no or poor degradation capacity. These results indicates that the earlymethanogcnic tlora developing in landfills and landfill simulation reactors is different from the one later established by being less efficient in transformation of aromatic compounds but also less sensitive to aryl halides.

National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79139 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
3. Degradation of phenol under meso- and thermophilic, anaerobic conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation of phenol under meso- and thermophilic, anaerobic conditions
1998 (English)In: Anaerobe, ISSN 1075-9964, E-ISSN 1095-8274, Vol. 5, no 1, 25-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on the results of preliminary studies on phenol degradation under mesophilic conditions with a mixed methanogenic culture, we proposed a degradation pathway in which phenol is fermented to acetate: Part of the phenol is reductively transformed to benzoate while the rest is oxidised, forming acetate as end product. According to our calculations, this should result in three moles of phenol being converted to two moles of benzoate and three moles of acetate (3phenol+2CO2+3H2O→3acetate+2benzoate): To assess the validity of our hypothesis concerning the metabolic pathway, we studied the transformation of phenol under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in relation to the availability of hydrogen. Hence, methanogenic meso- and thermophilic cultures amended with phenol were run with or without an added over-pressure of hydrogen under methanogenic and non-methanogenic conditions. Bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) was used to inhibit methanogenic activity. In the mesophilic treatments amended with only BES, about 70% of the carbon in the products found was benzoate. During the course of phenol transformation in these BES-amended cultures, the formation pattern of the degradation products changed: Initially nearly 90% of the carbon from phenol degradation was recovered as benzoate, whereas later in the incubation, in addition to benzoate formation, the aromatic nucleus degraded completely to acetate. Thus, the initial reduction of phenol to benzoate resulted in a lowering of H2levels, giving rise to conditions allowing the degradation of phenol to acetate as the end product. Product formation in bottles amended with BES and phenol occurred in accordance with the hypothesised pathway; however, the overall results indicate that the degradation of phenol in this system is more complex.

During phenol transformation under thermophilic conditions, no benzoate was observed and no phenol was transformed in the BES-amended cultures. This suggests that the sensitivity of phenol transformation to an elevated partial pressure of H2is higher under thermophilic conditions than under mesophilic ones. The lack of benzoate formation could have been due to a high turnover of benzoate or to a difference in the phenol degradation pathway between the thermophilic and mesophilic cultures.

Keyword
phenol degradation, electronacceptor, acetate formation, meso and thermophilic conditions, methane formation
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31040 (URN)10.1006/anae.1998.0187 (DOI)16748 (Local ID)16748 (Archive number)16748 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
4. CO2-dependent fermentation of phenol to acetate, butyrate and benzoate by an anaerobic, pasteurised culture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CO2-dependent fermentation of phenol to acetate, butyrate and benzoate by an anaerobic, pasteurised culture
2000 (English)In: Archives of Microbiology, ISSN 0302-8933, E-ISSN 1432-072X, Vol. 173, no 5-6, 398-402 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fermentative degradation of phenol was studied using a non-methanogenic, pasteurised enrichment culture containing two morphologically different bacteria. Phenol was fermented to benzoate, acetate and butyrate and their relative occurrence depended on the concentration of hydrogen. Proportionately more benzoate was formed with high initial levels of H2. The influence of P(H2) on the fermentation pattern was studied both in dense cell suspensions and in growing cultures by addition of hydrogen. An increase in growth yield (OD578 was observed, compared to controls, as a consequence of phenol degradation, however, the increase was less in H2-amended treatments, in which most of the phenol ended up as benzoate. The degradation of phenol in the dense cell suspension experiments was dependent on CO2. Benzoate was not degraded when added as a substrate to the growing culture. This is, to our knowledge, the first report concerning the fermentative degradation of phenol to nonaromatic products.

Keyword
Phenol fermentation, Reductive dehydroxylation, Hydrogen partial pressure, Ring cleavage
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32080 (URN)10.1007/s002030000160 (DOI)17935 (Local ID)17935 (Archive number)17935 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved
5. Reduction of phenol to benzoate: an electron sink reaction used by a highly enriched anaerobic culture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of phenol to benzoate: an electron sink reaction used by a highly enriched anaerobic culture
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A non-methanogenic pasteurised enrichment culture fermenting phenolto benzoate, butyrate and acetate was studied, focusing on the effects of adding yeast extract (0.1, 0.2 or I g!l) or glucose (1.5 mM) together with the phenol (5 mM). The results showed that the reductive formation of benzoate from phenol increased when either yeast extract (1 g 1-') or glucose was added to the medium. The culture also transformed phenol at a higher rate when glucose was added as a "co-substrate" than when it was grown on phenol alone. Furthermore, higher growth rates occurred in cultures grown on both substrates rather than on glucose or phenol alone.

Keyword
phenol fermentation, electron sink, glucose
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-79144 (URN)
Available from: 2012-06-29 Created: 2012-06-29 Last updated: 2012-06-29Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Authority records BETA

Karlsson, Anna

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Karlsson, Anna
By organisation
Department of Water and Environmental StudiesFaculty of Arts and Sciences
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 1404 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf