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Programmable and Tunable Circuits for Flexible RF Front Ends
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Most of today’s microwave circuits are designed for specific function and specialneed. There is a growing trend to have flexible and reconfigurable circuits. Circuitsthat can be digitally programmed to achieve various functions based on specific needs. Realization of high frequency circuit blocks that can be dynamically reconfigured toachieve the desired performance seems to be challenging. However, with recentadvances in many areas of technology these demands can now be met.

Two concepts have been investigated in this thesis. The initial part presents thefeasibility of a flexible and programmable circuit (PROMFA) that can be utilized formultifunctional systems operating at microwave frequencies. Design details andPROMFA implementation is presented. This concept is based on an array of genericcells, which consists of a matrix of analog building blocks that can be dynamicallyreconfigured. Either each matrix element can be programmed independently or severalelements can be programmed collectively to achieve a specific function. The PROMFA circuit can therefore realize more complex functions, such as filters oroscillators. Realization of a flexible RF circuit based on generic cells is a new concept.In order to validate the idea, a test chip has been fabricated in a 0.2μm GaAs process, ED02AH from OMMICTM. Simulated and measured results are presented along withsome key applications like implementation of a widely tunable band pass filter and anactive corporate feed network.

The later part of the thesis covers the design and implementation of tunable andwideband highly linear LNAs that can be very useful for multistandard terminals suchas software defined radio (SDR). One of the key components in the design of a flexibleradio is low noise amplifier (LNA). Considering a multimode and multiband radiofront end, the LNA must provide adequate performance within a large frequency band.Optimization of LNA performance for a single frequency band is not suitable for thisapplication. There are two possible solutions for multiband and multimode radio frontends (a) Narrowband tunable LNAs (b) Wideband highly linear LNAs. A dual bandtunable LNA MMIC has been fabricated in 0.2μm GaAs process. A self tuningtechnique has also been proposed for the optimization of this LNA. This thesis alsopresents the design of a novel highly linear current mode LNA that can be used forwideband RF front ends for multistandard applications. Technology process for thiscircuit is 90nm CMOS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2008. , 120 p.
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1379
Keyword [en]
Microwave circuits, phase shifters, programmable circuits, active corporate feed network, four-port circuit, generic cells, phase shift capability, programmable microwave function array, tunable recursive filter
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14864Local ID: LiU-TEK-LIC-2008:37ISBN: 978-91-7393-815-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-14864DiVA: diva2:25376
Presentation
2008-09-12, Glashuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2009-04-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Applications of Programmable Microwave Function Array (PROMFA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applications of Programmable Microwave Function Array (PROMFA)
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD 2007), August 26-30, 2007, Seville, Spain, IEEE , 2007, 164 -167 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes the use of programmable microwave function array (PROMFA) for different microwave application. The PROMFA concept is based on an array of generic cells, in which a number of different functions can be realized. Each PROMFA cell is a four-port circuit, that can either be programmed independently or collectively according to a specific need. Specifically, the phase shift capability in a single PROMFA cell, useful for a new type of phase shifter design is discussed. The paper also presents the functionality of this new architecture as a beamforming network. As an example case an active corporate feed network and a tunable recursive filter is demonstrated. Simulated and measured results are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2007
Keyword
Microwave circuits, phase shifters, programmable circuits, active corporate feed network, four-port circuit, generic cells, phase shift capability, programmable microwave function array, tunable recursive filter
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14859 (URN)10.1109/ECCTD.2007.4529562 (DOI)978-1-4244-1341-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved
2. Dual Band Tunable LNA for Flexible RF Front End
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual Band Tunable LNA for Flexible RF Front End
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST 2007), January 8-11, 2007, Islamabad, Pakistan, IEEE Explore , 2007, 19-22 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a dual band LNA that can be switched between two bands (2.4 GHz & 5.2 GHz) for IEEE 802.1 la/b/g WLAN applications. The LNA is also tunable within each band and the tuning is incorporated by on-chip varactors. The test chip consists of two fully integrated narrow-band tunable LNAs along with SPDT switch. For power saving one LNA can be switched off. The technology process is 0.2 mum GaAs offered by OMMIC. The LNA can achieve a relatively good performance over the two bands as demonstrated by simulation. With a 3V supply, the LNA has a gain of 26.2 dB at 2.4 GHz and 21.8 dB at 5.2 GHz and the corresponding NF varies between 2.07 dB and 1.84 dB, respectively. The LNA has an IIP3 of -7 dBm at 2.4 GHz and -1.6 dBm at 5.2 GHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Explore, 2007
Keyword
Circuit tuning, flexible electronics, gallium arsenide, low noise amplifiers, radiofrequency amplifiers, varactors, wireless LAN
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14860 (URN)10.1109/IBCAST.2007.4379900 (DOI)978-969-8741-04-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved
3. A Self-Tuning Technique for Optimization of Dual Band LNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Self-Tuning Technique for Optimization of Dual Band LNA
2008 (English)In: European Wireless Technology Conference (EuWiT), EuMW 2008, October 27-28, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, IEEE , 2008, 178-181 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a self-tuning technique for optimization of a dual band LNAthat can be used in a flexible RF front-end suitable for IEEE 802.11a/b/g WLANapplications. With this tuning technique the LNA can perform self-calibrationfor the optimal performance. A possible shift in resonance frequency due toprocess and temperature variations can be compensated by this method. Theproposed self-tuning technique is implemented by using a simple RF detector atthe LNA output. Based on the DC value provided by this detector the LNA istuned for a maximum gain through the tuning loop, which incorporates ADC,digital base-band and DAC. We show that the tuning error can be within halfLSB of ADC provided the DAC and ADC resolutions are constraint by aspecified condition. For 4-bit case this value corresponds to a gain error of0.4 dB. The LNA has been implemented in 0.2μm GaAs process offered byOMMICTM. In measurements the LNA achieves a gain of 15.1 dB and 21.6 dBin the upper and lower band, respectively, with corresponding NF of 3.8 dB and2.8 dB. In the lower band the measured IIP3 is -3 dBm and 1dB_CP is -8 dBm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14862 (URN)978-2-87487-008-8 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2009-05-29Bibliographically approved
4. Highly Linear Wideband Low Power Current Mode LNA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Linear Wideband Low Power Current Mode LNA
2008 (English)In: Proceedings from the ICSES'08 - ICSES 2008 International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, IEEE , 2008, 73-76 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents design considerations for low power, highly linear currentmode LNAs that can be used for wideband RF front-ends for multistandardapplications. The circuit level simulations of the proposed architecture indicatethat with optimal biasing a high value of IIP3 can be obtained. A comparison ofthree scenarios for optimal bias is presented. Simulation results indicate thatwith the proposed architecture, LNAs may achieve a maximum NF of 3.6 dBwith a 3 dB bandwidth larger than 10 GHz and a best case IIP3 of +17.6 dBmwith 6.3 mW power consumption. The LNAs have a broadband input match of 50Ω. The process is 90nm CMOS and with 1.1V supply the LNAs powerconsumption varies between 6.3 mW and 2.3 mW for the best and the worst caseIIP3, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2008
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14863 (URN)10.1109/ICSES.2008.4673361 (DOI)978-83-88309-47-2 (ISBN)978-83-88309-52-6 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems (ICSES’08), September 14-17, 2008, Krakow, Poland
Available from: 2008-09-26 Created: 2008-09-26 Last updated: 2014-05-15Bibliographically approved

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Ahsan, Naveed

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